The Effects of Smoking on Periodontal Therapy: An Evidence-Based Comprehensive Literature Review


The positive relationship between smoking and major general health diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease and negative pregnancy outcomes is already established. Moreover, the association between smoking as a major environmental risk factor for periodontal disease has also been established. Smoking is considered to have negative adverse effect on periodontal therapy ranging from non-surgical treatment, periodontal surgery, regenerative procedures and implants. This review article will attempt to build on previous studies in the periodontal literature in order to present an evidence-based comprehensive literature review on the effects of smoking on periodontal therapy.

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Abu-Ta’a, M. (2014) The Effects of Smoking on Periodontal Therapy: An Evidence-Based Comprehensive Literature Review. Open Journal of Stomatology, 4, 143-151. doi: 10.4236/ojst.2014.43022.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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