Phenotypic Variability in a Family with Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome Due to the Common A177T RNASEH2B Mutation


Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a rare inflammatory encephalopathy mimicking in utero acquired viral infection. Cardinal findings comprise leukodystrophy, basal ganglia calcifications and cerebral atrophy along with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis and elevated interferon-α. In the majority of cases AGS is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and caused by mutations in six genes including RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, TREX1, SAMHD1 and ADAR1, all of which encode enzymes acting on nucleic acid species. Most patients present with first neurological signs in early infancy and experience severe global developmental delay. Here, we report on the unusual divergent phenotype of two siblings who both carry the most frequent AGS causing p.A177T (c.529G > A) RNASEH2B mutation in the homozygous state. While one sibling showed a typical AGS presentation with early onset and severe statomotor and mental impairment, the older sibling was intellectually completely normal. She was only diagnosed because of mild spasticity of the legs and serological signs of autoimmunity. These findings highlight the phenotypic variability of AGS and suggest that AGS may be underdiagnosed among children with mild cerebral palsy.

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Tüngler, V. , Schmidt, F. , Hieronimus, S. , Reyes-Velasco, C. and Lee-Kirsch, M. (2014) Phenotypic Variability in a Family with Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome Due to the Common A177T RNASEH2B Mutation. Case Reports in Clinical Medicine, 3, 153-156. doi: 10.4236/crcm.2014.33037.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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