Perspectives on endogenous and exogenous tissue engineering following injury to tissues of the knee


The knee is a multi-component organ system comprised of several tissues which function coordinately to provide mobility. Injury to any one component compromises the integrity of the system and leads to adaptation of the other components. Over time, such events often lead to dysfunction and degeneration of the knee. Therefore, there has been considerable research emphasis to repair injured components in the knee including cartilage, menisci, and ligaments. Approaches to improving healing and repair/regeneration of knee tissues have included surgery, anti-sense gene therapy, injection of growth factors and inflammatory cytokine antagonists, transplantation of in vitro expanded chondrocytes, enhancement of endogenous cells via microfracture, injection of mesenchymal stem cells, and implantation of in vitro tissue engineered constructs. Some of these approaches have lead to temporary improvement in knee functioning, while others offer the potential to restore function and tissue integrity for longer periods of time. This article will review the status of many of these approaches, and provide a perspective on their limitations and potential to contribute to restoration of knee function across the lifespan.

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Hart, D. (2014) Perspectives on endogenous and exogenous tissue engineering following injury to tissues of the knee. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 7, 58-66. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2014.72009.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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