Development of Anti-Wear/Antioxidant Additives for High Quality Metalworking Fluid from Waste Petroleum Products


Surfactants are used for formulation metal working fluids. These fluids are applied to the interface between a cutting tool and the metal working piece to provide friction reduction. In the present paper, poly aromatic ammonium sulphonate and polyaromatic benzyl triethanolamsonium ethoxylate with 6 ethylene oxide units were synthesized and blended with coupling agent like dodecyl alcohol and oleic acid to produce cutting fluid and evaluate as antiwear. Values of surface tension of these additives were measured in oil phase and consequently CMC was determined for all additives and their mixtures in oil phase. The efficiency of these additives depends on their chemical structure and the presence of ether oxygen brings about the association of the surfactant with metal surface, hence very good wetting properties. The antiwear characteristic of surfactants increases with increasing polar linkages in the aromatic moieties forming chelated and coordinated layer. This is due to the increase in the number of sites to chemisorption on the metal surface. The films formed are highly condensed ring aromatic layered structures. These films provide lower wear and depend on the type of surfactants concentration and sliding speed. The surface of metal was analyzed by SEM/EDX techniques. These studies have led to much clear evidence of the intimate relationship between the chemical structure of the surfactants and their film forming. More confirmation for suggested mechanism was investigated by measuring the area occupied per molecule of the surfactant in oil phase. The results indicate that the sulphonate group is less efficient than ethoxylate group. At the same time, the micelle of surfactants acts as oil dispersant and improves adsorption of oil on the metal surface.

Share and Cite:

Mehbad, N. and Omar, A. (2014) Development of Anti-Wear/Antioxidant Additives for High Quality Metalworking Fluid from Waste Petroleum Products. Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, 4, 33-40. doi: 10.4236/jsemat.2014.41006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] A. M. A. Omar, “Micellization and Adsorption of Anionic/ Nonionic Polymeric Surfactants for Metal Working Fluid at Different Interfaces,” Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 56, No. 3, 2004, pp. 171-176.
[2] I. Minami, S. Kikuta and H. Okabe, “Anti-Wear and Friction Reducing Additives Composed of Orth-Phenylene Phosphate-Amine Salts for Polyether Type Base Stocks, Tribology International, Vol. 31, No. 6, 1998, pp. 305-312.
[3] N. Elmehbad, “Development Antioxidants Synthesized by Phase Transfer Catalysts for Lubricating Oil,” Biotech Conference & Expo, 12-16 May 2013.
[4] N. Elmehbad, “Developments of Multifunctional Additives for High Quality Lube Oil,” Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 5, 2013, pp. 84-89.
[5] N. Elmehbad, “The Development and Application of Ester for Lubricating Oil by Phase Transfer Catalysts,” Accepted for Oral Presentation in 19th International Colloquium, 21-23 January 2013, Germany.
[6] T. T. Khidr, E. M. S. Azzam, Sahar, S. Mutwaa and A. M. A. Omar, “Study of Some Anionic Surfactants as Pour Point Depressant Additives for Wax Gas Oil,” Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 59, No. 2, 2007, pp. 64-68.
[7] T. T. Khidr and A. M. A. Omar, “Anionic/Nonionic Mixture of Surfactants for Pour Point Depression of Gas Oil,” Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, Vol. 12, 2003, pp. 21-26.
[8] T. T. Khidr, D. Ismail and A. M. A. Omar, “Improving the Flow Properties of n-Paraffin Gas Oil by Cationic and Non Ionic Surfactants,” Journal of Faculty of Education, Vol. 25, 2000, pp. 121-135.
[9] A. M. A. Omar, “Separation of Emulsifiable Oil from Solution by Surface Tension Control,” Adsorption Science and Technology, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2001, pp. 91-100.
[10] A. M. A. Omar, “Correlation between Surface, Thermodynamic Parameters of the Anionic Collector and Oil Separation by Flotation,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Technology, Vol. 19, No, 7-8, 2001, pp. 911-921.
[11] A. El Sayed el Tabei, “Production of Surfactants from Petroleum by Products by Phase Transfer Catalysis for Metal Working Fluids,” Ph.D. Thesis, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 2008.
[12] A. M. A. Omar, “Anionic/Nonionic Collector Efficiency as Related to the CMC of the Mixture,” Afinidad, Vol. 464, 1996, pp. 262-266.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.