Morphometric, Physicochemical, Thermal, and Rheological Properties of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars Indica × Japonica


The anther culture technical was applied to produce haploid lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The hybrids (K/ A92VM061, K/A92VM067, K/A92VM0611, K/A92VM719, K/A92VM720 and K/A92VM721) were obtained in order to generate new varieties from Indica and Japonica cultivars. Morphometric parameters of the grains were evaluated by image analysis. Flours were prepared from the whole rice grains and physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties, X-ray diffraction pattern and evaluation of color using the CIELAB system were assessed. The hybrids lines showed long (061, 611, 721), medium (719 and 720) and short (067) grains. The rice samples presented lipids (2.6% - 3.2%), protein (11% - 15%), total dietary fiber (8.4% - 10.2%), total starch (65% - 74%) and apparent amylose (5% - 32%) contents. Gelatinization temperature (Tp) was found in the range of 66.1℃ - 79.4℃ with enthalpy (ΔH) value between 3.4 - 8.1 J/g. The retrogradation parameters (temperature and ΔH) were lower than those for gelatinization in all samples. The rice samples presented A-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Rice pastes showed a non-Newtonian behavior and the brightness (L*) characterize the color of the samples. Hybrid rice grains presented morphometric properties more similar to Japonica than Indica variety. Rice hybrid had higher protein content than Indica variety. Apparent amylose, viscosity and gelatinization temperature varied significantly among hybrids and varieties.

Share and Cite:

L. Morales-Martínez, L. Bello-Pérez, M. Sánchez-Rivera, E. Ventura-Zapata and A. Jiménez-Aparicio, "Morphometric, Physicochemical, Thermal, and Rheological Properties of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars Indica × Japonica," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 3, 2014, pp. 271-279. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.53034.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] F. K. Rimberia, H. Sungagawa, N. Urasaki, Y. Ishimine and S. Adaniya, “Embryo Induction via Anther Culture in Papaya and Sex Analysis of the Derived Plantlets,” Science Horticulture, Vol. 103, No. 2, 2005, pp. 199-208.
[2] V. C. Lapitan, E. D. Redona, T. Abe and D. S. Brar, “Molecular Characterization and Agronomic Performance of DH Lines from the F1 of Indica and Japonica Cultivars of Rice (Oryza sativa L.),” Field Crops Research, Vol. 112, No. 2-3, 2009, pp. 222-228.
[3] J. Li, Y. Wang, L. Lin, L. Zhou, N. Luo, Q. Deng, J. Xian, Ch. Hou and Y. Qiu, “Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration from Anther Culture in Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica L.),” Scientia Horticulturae, Vol. 115, No. 4, 2008, pp. 329-336.
[4] D. K. Cameron, Y.-J. Wang and K. A. Moldenhauer, “Comparision of Physical and Chemical Properties of Medium Grain Rice Cultivars Grown in California and Arkansas,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 73, No. 2, 2008, pp. C72-C78.
[5] C. E. Chávez-Murillo, Y.-J. Wang, A. G. QuinteroGutiérrez and L. A. Bello-Pérez, “Physicochemical, Textural, and Nutritional Characterization of Mexican Rice Cultivars,” Cereal Chemistry, Vol. 88, No. 3, 2011, pp. 245-252.
[6] G. E. Vandeputte and J. A. Delcour, “From Sucrose to Starch Granule to Starch Physical Behaviour a Focus on Rice Starch,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 58, No. 3, 2004, pp. 245-266.
[7] L. Iturriga, B. Lopez and M. Anon, “Thermal and Physicochemical Characterization of Seven Argentine Rice Flours and Starches,” Food Research International, Vol. 37, No. 5, 2004, pp. 439-447.
[8] L.-J. Zhu, Q.-Q. Liu, Y. Sang, M.-H. Gu and Y.-C. Shi, “Underlying Reasons for Waxy Rice Flours Having Different Pasting Properties,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 120, No. 1, 2010, pp. 94-100.
[9] F. Tan, W. Dai and K. Hsu, “Changes in Gelatinization and Rheological Characteristics of Japonica Rice Starch Induced by Pressure/Heat Combinations,” Journal of Cereal Science, Vol. 49, No. 2, 2009, pp. 285-289.
[10] Y. Wu, Z. Chen, X. Li and Z. Wang, “Retrogradation Properties of High Amylose Rice Flour and Rice Starch by Physical Modification,” Food Science and Technology, Vol. 43, No. 3, 2010, pp. 492-497.
[11] J. Liang, Z. Li, K. Tsuji, K. Nakano, M. J. R. Nout and R. J. Hamer, “Milling Characteristics and Distribution of Phytic Acid and Zinc in Long-, Mediumand Short-Grain Rice,” Journal of Cereal Science, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2008, pp. 83-91.
[12] B. H. Mohan, N. G. Malleshi and T. Koseki, “PhysicChemical Characteristics and Non-Starch Polysaccharide Contents of Indica and Japonica Brown Rice and Their Malts,” Food Science and Technology, Vol. 43, No. 5, 2010, pp. 784-791.
[13] B. Min, A. M. McClung and M.-H. Chen, “Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacities in Rice Brans of Different Color,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 76, No. 1, 2011, pp. 117-126.
[14] P. Wanyo, C. Chommawang and S. Siriamornpun, “Substitution of Wheat Flour with Rice Flour and Rice Bran in Flake Products: Effects on Chemical, Physical and Antioxidant Properties,” World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2009, pp. 49-56.
[15] A. A. Perdon, T. J. Siebenmorgen, A. Mauromoustakos, V. K. Griffin and E. R. Johnson, “Degree of Milling Effects on Rice Pasting Properties,” Cereal Chemistry, Vol. 78, No. 2, 2001, pp. 205-209.
[16] J. Patindol and Y.-J. Wang, “Fine Structures of Starches from Long-Grain Rice Cultivars with Different Functionality,” Cereal Chemistry, Vol. 79, No. 3, 2002, pp. 465469.
[17] K. A. C. Tavares, E. Zanatta, D. Zavareze, E. Helbig and G. A. R. Diaz, “The Effects of Acid and Oxidative Modification on the Expansion Properties of Rice Flours with Varying Levels of Amylose,” Food Science and Technology, Vol. 43, No. 8, 2010, pp. 1213-1219.
[18] Y.-L. Zhang, M.-H. Xu, Y.-W. Zeng, C.-X. Yao and S.-N. Chen, “Relationship between the First Base of the Donor Splice Site of Waxy Gene Intron 1 and Amylose Content in Yunnan Indigenous Rice Varieties,” Rice Science, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2007, pp. 189-194.
[19] K. R. Bhattacharya, “Physicochemical Basis of Eating Quality of Rice,” Cereal Food World, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2009, pp. 18-28.
[20] R. B. Latha, K. K. Bhat and S. Bhattacharya, “Rheological Behaviour of Steamed Rice Flour Dispersions,” Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 51, No. 2, 2002, pp. 125-129.
[21] Z.-H. Lu, T. Sasaki, Y.-Y. Li, T. Yoshihashi, L.-T. Li and K. Kohyama, “Effect of Amylose Content and Rice Type on Dynamic Viscoelasticity of a Composite Rice Starch Gel,” Food Hydrocolloids, Vol. 23, No. 7, 2009, pp. 1712-1719.
[22] M. Huang, J. F. Kennedy, B. Li, X. Xu and B. J. Xie, “Characters of Rice Starch Gel Modified by Gellan, Carrageenan, and Glucomannan: A Texture Profile Analysis Study,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 69, No. 3, 2007, pp. 411-418.
[23] L. Lamberts, E. De Bie, G. E. Vandeputte, W. S. Veraverbeke, V. Derycke, W. De Man and J. A. Delcour, “Effect of Milling on Color and Nutritional Properties of Rice,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 100, No. 4, 2007, pp. 14961503.
[24] E. R. Davis, “Image Processing for the Food Industry,” Series in Machine Perception and Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 37, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore, 2000.
[25] C. Lira, “Introducción al Tratamiento Digital de Imágenes,” IPN-UNAM-FCE, México, 2002.
[26] AOAC, “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 14th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists Inc., Arlington, 1984.
[27] AACC International, “Approved Methods of Analysis,” 10th Edition, Vol. II. Method 44-15A, 46-19 and 61-02. AACC International, St. Paul, 2000.
[28] AOAC, “Official Methods of Analysis of Official Analytical Chemists,” Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, 1999.
[29] B. O. Juliano, C. M. Perez, A. B. Blakeney, T. Castillo, N. Kogeree, B. Laignelet, E. T. Lapis, V. V. S. Murty, C. M. Paule and B. D. Webb, “International Cooperative Testing on the Amylose Content of Milled Rice,” Starch, Vol. 33, No. 5, 1981, pp. 157-162.
[30] I. Goni, A. García-Alonso and F. Saura-Calixto, “A Starch Hydrolysis Procedure to Estimate Glycemic Index,” Nutrition Research, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1997, pp. 427-437.
[31] G. R. McGuire, “Reporting of Objective Color Measurements,” HortSciencie, Vol. 27, No. 12, 1992, pp. 12541255.
[32] H. Good, “Measurement of Color in Cereal Products,” Cereal Foods World, Vol. 47, No. 1, 2002, pp. 5-6.
[33] O. Paredes-López, L. A. Bello-Pérez and M. G. López, “Amylopectin: Structural Gelatinization and Retrogradation Studies,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 3, 1994, pp. 411-418.
[34] M. J. Kovach, M. T. Sweeney and S. R. McCouch, “New Insights into the History of Rice Domestication,” Trends in Genetics, Vol. 23, No. 11, 2007, pp. 578-587.
[35] M. A. Fitzgerald, S. R. McCouch and R. D. Hall, “Not Just a Grain of Rice: The Quest for Quality,” Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2009, pp. 133-139.
[36] L. Jin, P. Xiao, Y. Lu, Y. Shao, Y. Shen and J. Bao, “Quantitative Trait Loci for Brown Rice Color, Phenolics, Flavonoid Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity in Rice Grain,” Cereal Chemistry, Vol. 86, No. 6, 2009, pp. 609615.
[37] E. Primo, A. Casas, S. Barber and B. C. Barber, “Factores de Calidad del Arroz. VI. Influencia de las Proteínas Sobre la Calidad de Cocción. Proteínas en la Capa Externa,” Revista de Agroquímicos Tecnología de Alimentos, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1962, p. 135.
[38] J. Chrastil, “Changes of Oryzenin and Starch during Preharvest Maturation of Rice Grains,” Journal Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 41, No. 12, 1993, pp. 22422244.
[39] Y. Maramatsu, A. Tagawa, E. Sakaguchi and T. Kasai, “Water Absorption Characteristics and Volume Changes of Milled and Brown Rice during Soaking,” Cereal Chemistry, Vol. 83, No. 6, 2006, pp. 624-631.
[40] S.-C. Li, T.-C. Chou and C.-K. Shih, “Effects of Brown Rice, Rice Brand and Polished Rice on Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats,” Food Research International, Vol. 44, No. 1, 2011, pp. 209-216.
[41] B. O. Juliano, G. M. Bautista, J. C. Lugay and A. C. Reyes, “Studies on the Physicochemical Properties of Rice,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1964, pp. 131-138.
[42] Y. Sano, M. Maekawa and H. Kikuchi, “Temperature Effects on the Wx Protein Level and Amylose Content in the Endosperm of Rice,” Journal of Heredity, Vol. 76, No. 3, 1985, pp. 221-222.
[43] S. Yu, Y. Ma and D.-W. Sun, “Impact of Amylase Content on Starch Retrogradation and Texture of Cooked Milled Rice during Storage,” Journal of Cereal Science, Vol. 50, No. 2, 2009, pp. 139-144.
[44] N. Singh, L. Kaur, S. K. Sandhu, J. Kaur and K. Nishinari, “Relationships between Physicochemical, Morphological, Thermal, Rheological Properties of Rice Starches,” Food Hydrocolloids, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2006, pp. 532-542.
[45] L. Lamberts, S. V. Gomand, V. Deycke and J. A. Delcour, “Presence of Amylose Crystallites in Parboiled Rice,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 57, No. 8, 2009, pp. 3210-3216.
[46] J. Bao, Y. Shen and L. Jin, “Determination of Thermal and Retrogradation Properties of Rice Starch Using NearInfrared Spectroscopy,” Journal of Cereal Science, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2007, pp. 75-81.
[47] Y. Li, Ch. F. Shoemaker, J. Ma, K. J. Moon and F. Zhong, “Structure-Viscosity Relationships for Starches from Different Rice Varieties during Heating,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 106, No. 3, 2008, pp. 1105-1112.
[48] F. Zhong, Y. Li, A. M. Ibánez, M. O. Hun, S. K. McKenzie and C. Shoemaker, “The Effect of Rice Variety and Starch Isolation Method on the Pasting and Rheological Properties of Rice Starch Pastes,” Food Hydrocolloids, Vol. 23, No. 2, 2009, pp. 406-414.
[49] G. Baxter, Ch. Blanchard and J. Zhao, “Effects of Prolamin on the Textural and Pasting Properties of Rice Flour and Starch,” Journal of Cereal Science, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2004, pp. 205-211.
[50] K. Ohishi, M. Kasai, A. Shimada and K. Hatae, “Effects of Acetic Acid on the Rice Gelatinization and Pasting Properties of Rice Starch during Cooking,” Food Research International, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2007, pp. 224-231.
[51] S. Y. Chun and B. Yoo, “Rheological Behavior of Cooked Rice Flour Dispersions in Steady and Dynamic Shear,” Journal and Food Engineering, Vol. 65, No. 2, 2004, pp. 363-370.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.