Patient Reported Outcomes Instruments in Schizophrenia: A Review of Psychometric Properties

DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2014.32017   PDF   HTML   XML   5,169 Downloads   8,762 Views   Citations


Background: Interest in the self-perception of patients with mental illness is increasing because of the gap between the physician and patient perceptions of symptoms and drug side effects. Schizophrenia is one of the mental illnesses that cause the greatest difficulty in understanding the various physical and psychological impacts related to both symptoms and drug treatment. Thus, several patient-reported outcomes (PRO) have been developed to get a clearer understanding of patients’ experience with their own illness and the treatment that they receive. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify all PRO questionnaires used in the evaluation of patients with schizophrenia, and to assess the quality of these questionnaires based on psychometric evidence. Methods: All PRO questionnaires used in the evaluation of patients with schizophrenia were identified using a search strategy in Pubmed, Medline, and the ISPOR website. PRO psychometric properties were extracted, and their level of validation was assessed. Results: The literature search resulted in the identification of 70 generic, mental health-specific or schizophrenia-specific instruments. These questionnaires were categorized according to measured domains. Six major domains were identified: health related quality of life (HRQoL), insight, depression/ feelings, treatment related, illness symptoms, and caregiver/family. Questionnaires measuring other dimensions were classified as other (related to personality measurement, communication between patients and clinicians and services satisfaction). The review shows that the HRQoL questionnaires demonstrate the best psychometric properties. Conclusion: The assessments of these questionnaires, based on their psychometric evidence level, will allow researchers to choose the most appropriate PRO instruments, based on the instruments’ ability to respond to the objectives of the study and on the rigor of their psychometric qualities. As schizophrenia is a multidimensional mental illness, we argue that a single PRO questionnaire is insufficient to obtain a clear understanding of the condition and treatment effects in patients with schizophrenia. Thus, we think that new PRO instruments in schizophrenia should be developed.

Share and Cite:

A. Millier, E. Clay, I. Charaf, D. Chauhan, V. Murthy, M. Toumi and N. Cadi-Soussi, "Patient Reported Outcomes Instruments in Schizophrenia: A Review of Psychometric Properties," Open Journal of Medical Psychology, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2014, pp. 141-156. doi: 10.4236/ojmp.2014.32017.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] D. T. Y. Tsoi, M. D. Hunter and P. W. R. Woodruff, “History, Aetiology, and Sypmtomatology of Schizophrenia,” Psychiatry, Vol. 7, No. 10, 2008, pp. 404-409.
[2] S. Saha, D. Chant, J. Welham and J. McGrath, “A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Schizophrenia,” PLOS Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 5, 2005, p. e141.
[3] “Schizophrenia,” NIH Publication No. 09-3517, Revised 2009.
[4] R. McCabe, M. Saidi and S. Priebe, “Patient-Reported Outcomes in Schizophrenia,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 191, 2007, pp. s21-s28.
[5] US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), “Guidance for Industry Patient-Reported Outcome Measures: Use in Medical Product Development to Support Labeling Claims,” December 2009.
[6] L. J. Schmidt, A. M. Garratt and R. Fitzpatrick, “Instruments for Mental Health: A Review Report from the Patient-Reported Health Instruments Group (Formerly the Patient-Assessed Health Outcomes Programme) to the Department of Health,” September 2000.
[7] R. Hunter, R. Cameron and J. Norrie, “Using Patient-Reported Outcomes in Schizophrenia: The Scottish Schizophrenia Outcomes Study,” Psychiatric Services, Vol. 60, No. 2, 2009, pp. 240-245.
[8] R. Fitzpatrick, A. E. Fletcher, S. M. Gore, D. Jones, D. J. Spiegelhalter and D. R. Cox, “Quality of Life Measures in Health Care,” British Medical Journal, Vol. 305, No. 6861, 1992, pp. 1074-1077.
[9] MRC, “Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs): Identifying UK Research Priorities,” Medical Research Council, London, 2009.
[10] M. Nussbaum and A. Sen, “The Quality of Life,” Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993.
[11] D. Gregory, R. Johnston, G. Pratt, M. Watts and S. Whatmore, “Quality of Life. Dictionary of Human Geography,” 5th Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, 2009.
[12] B. Spilker, “Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics in Clinical Trials,” 2nd Edition, Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, 1996.
[13] P. A. Ganz, “Impact of Quality of Life Outcomes on Clinical Practice,” Oncology (Williston Park), Vol. 9, Supplement 11, 1995, pp. 61-65.
[14] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL),” 2011.
[15] A. L. Montejo, J. C. Lauffer, J. Cuervo, P. Rebollo, L. Cordero, T. Diez and J. Maurino, “Validation of a Specific Measure to Assess Healthrelated Quality of Life in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: The ‘Tolerability and Quality of Life’ (TOOL) Questionnaire,” Annals of General Psychiatry, Vol. 10, 2011 , p. 6.
[16] A. Montejo, J. CorreasLauffer, F. Porras, T. Martin, P. Ruiz Carrasco, L. Cordero, T. Diez and J. Maurino, “Spanish Validation of Tool Questionnaire: A New Instrument to Assess Quality of Life in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder,” European Psychiatry, Vol. 24, Suppl. 1, 2009, p. S947.
[17] L. Jonsson, A. Lang and E. Lindstrom, “TOOL: Multi-Attribute Utility Function Reflecting Patient Experience of Side Effects to Antipsychotic Therapy,” ISPOR 12th Annual European Congress, Paris, 24-27 October 2009.
[18] C. Luis, J. Maurino, A. L. Montejo, P. Rebollo, J. Cuervo, T. Diez, M. Tafalla and R. Hernandez, “The Spanish Version of the TOOL Questionnaire: A Useful Measure for Evaluating the HRQOL and Utilities from Schizophrenic and Bipolar Patients,” (PMH43) ISPOR 11th Annual European Congress, Athens, 8-11 November, 2008.
[19] D. Naber, S. Moritz, M. Lambert, F. G. Pajonk, R. Holzbach, R. Mass and B. Andresen, “Improvement of Schizophrenic Patients’ Subjective Well-Being under Antipsychotic Drugs,” Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 50, No. 1, 2001, pp. 79-88.
[20] D. Naber and A. Vita, “Tools for Measuring Clinical Effectiveness,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 14, Suppl. 4, 2004, pp. S435-S444.
[21] Y. W. Lee, J. H. Kim, J. H. Ann, S. E. Cho, J. Lee, M. K. Kim, S. J. Cho, I. H. Cho, S. J. Kim, Y. J. Lee and S. M. Bae, “Subjective Well-being in Patients with Schizophrenia Treated with Atypical Antipsychotics: The Impact of Psychopathology and Adverse Drug Effects,” Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience, Vol. 3, 2010, pp. 149-155.
[22] K. Jaspers, “General Psychopathology,” Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1959.
[23] A. Lewis, “The Psychopathology of Insight,” Journal of Medical Psychology, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1934, pp. 332-348.
[24] W. T. Carpenter Jr., J. S. Strauss and J. J. Bartko, “Flexible System for the Diagnosis of Schizophrenia: Report from the WHO International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia,” Science, Vol. 182, No. 4118, 1973, pp. 1275-1278.
[25] X. F. Amador, M. Flaum, N. C. Andreasen, D. H. Strauss, S. A. Yale, S. C. Clark and J. M. Gorman, “Awareness of Illness in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective and Mood Disorders,” Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 51, No. 10, 1994, pp. 826-836.
[26] A. David, A. Buchanan, A. Reed and O. Almeida, “The Assessment of Insight in Psychosis,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 161, 1992, pp. 599-602.
[27] N. Hayashi, M. Yamashina and Y. Igarashi, “Awareness of Being a Patient and Its Relevance to Insight Into Illness in Patients With Schizophrenia,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol. 40, No. 5, 1999, pp. 377-385.
[28] A. T. Beck, E. Baruch, J. M. Balter, R. A. Steer and D. M. Warman, “A New Instrument for Measuring Insight: The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale,” Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 68, No. 2, 2004, pp. 319-329.
[29] T. J. Lambert, N. Cock, S. J. Alcock, D. L. Kelly and R. R. Conley, “Measurement of Antipsychotic-Induced Side Effects: Support for the Validity of a Self-Report (LUNSERS) versus Structured Interview (UKU) Approach to Measurement,” Human Psychopharmacology, Vol. 18, No. 5, 2003, pp. 405-411.
[30] C. McKibbin, T. L. Patterson and D. V. Jeste, “Assessing Disability in Older Patients with Schizophrenia. Results from the WHODAS-II,” The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol. 192, No. 6, 2004, pp. 405-413.
[31] I. Iancu, A. Poreh, B. Lehman, E. Shamir and M. Kotler, “The Positive and Negative Symptoms Questionnaire: A Self-Report Scale in Schizophrenia,” Comprhensive Psychiatry, Vol. 46, No. , 2005, pp. 61-66.
[32] G. Loas, J. L. Monestes, A. Ameller, M. Bubrovszky, V. Yon, J. Wallier, S. Berthoz and M. Corcos, “Traduction et Etude de Validation de la Version Francaise de L’échelle d’Expérience Temporelle du Plaisir,” Annales Médico-Psychologiques, Vol. 167, No. 9, 2008, pp. 1-17.
[33] J. Favrod, F. Ernst, F. Giuliani and C. Bonsack, “Validation of the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) in a French-Speaking Environment,” L'Encéphale, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2008, pp. 241-248.
[34] M. McNaught, P. Caputi, L. G. Oades and F. P. Deane, “Testing the Validity of the Recovery Assessment Scale Using an Australian Sample,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 41, No. 5, 2007, pp. 450-457.
[35] L. Gregg, C. Barrowclough and G. Haddock, “Development and Validation of a Scale for Assessing Reasons for Substance Use in Schizophrenia: The ReSUS Scale,” Addictive Behaviors, Vol. 34, No. 10, 2009, pp. 830-837.
[36] I. H. Franken, E. Rassin and P. Muris, “The Assessment of Anhedonia in Clinical and Non-Clinical Populations: Further Validation of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS),” Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 99, No. 1, 2007, pp. 83-89.
[37] W. P. Horan, S. P. Reise, K. L. Subotnik, J. Ventura and K. H. Nuechterlein, “The Validity of Psychosis Proneness Scales as Vulnerability Indicators in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia Patients,” Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 100, No. 1, 2008, pp. 224-236.
[38] F. Assouly-Besse, S. Dollfus and M. Petit, “Traduction-francaise des Questionnaires d’Anhédoniesociale et Physique de Chapman: Validation de la Traductionfrancaise à Partir de Témoins et de Patients Schizophrènes,” L’Encéphale, Vol. 21, 2012, pp. 273-284.
[39] G. Loas and P. Boyer, “Evaluation of Anhedonia in Psychopathology: Second Study of the Validation of the French Version of the Chapman and Chapman Physical Anhedonia Scale. Study of 356 Persons,” Annales Médico-Psychologiques, Vol. 152, No. 4, 1994, pp. 256-259.
[40] P. Scherbarth-Roschmann and M. Hautzinger, “Psychosis Proneness and Clinical Psychopathology: Positive and Negative Symptoms,” Zeitschrift Für Klinische Psychologie, Vol. 20, 1991, pp. 371-378.
[41] D. Y. K. Lau and A. H. T. Pang, “Validation of the Chinese Version of Experience of Cairegiving Inventory in Caregivers of Persons Suffering from Severe Mental Disorders,” Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2007, pp. 24-31.
[42] W. T. Chien and S. W. Chan, “Validation of the Chinese Version of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire,” Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2008, pp. 6-14.
[43] R. Richieri, L. Boyer, G. Reine, A. Loundou, P. Auquier, C. Lancon and M. C. Simeoni, “The Schizophrenia Caregiver Quality of Life Questionnaire (S-CGQoL): Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Quality of Life of Caregivers of Individuals with Schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 126, No. 1, 2011, pp. 192-201.
[44] J. E. Levene, W. J. Lancee and M. V. Seeman, “The Perceived Family Burden Scale: Measurement and Validation,” Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1996, pp. 151-157.
[45] H. Fujita, S. Shimodera, Y. Izumoto, S. Tanaka, M. Kii, Y. Mino and S. Inoue, “Family Attitude Scale: Measurement of Criticism in the Relatives of Patients with Schizophrenia in Japan,” Psychiatry Research, Vol. 110, No. 3, 2002, pp. 273-280.
[46] Z. Li and D. Arthur, “A Study of Three Measures of Expressed Emotion in a Sample of Chinese Families of a Person with Schizophrenia,” Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Vol. 12, No. 4, 2005, pp. 431-438.
[47] D. L. Larsen, C. C. Attkisson, W. A. Hargreaves and T. D. Nguyen, “Assessment of Client/Patient Satisfaction: Development of a General Scale,” Evaluation and Program Planning, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1979, pp. 197-207.
[48] M. Birchwood, J. Smith, R. Cochrane, S. Wetton and S. Copestake, “The Social Functioning Scale. The Development and Validation of a New Scale of Social Adjustment for Use in Family Intervention Programmes with Schizophrenic Patients,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 157, 1990, pp. 853-859.
[49] T. Hellvin, K. Sundet, A. Vaskinn, C. Simonsen, T. Ueland, O. A. Andreassen and I. Melle, “Validation of the Norwegian version of the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) for Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder,” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 51, No. 6, 2010, pp. 525-533.
[50] F. R. Leifker, T. L. Patterson, R. K. Heaton and P. D. Harvey, “Validating Measures of Real-World Outcome: The Results of the VALERO Expert Survey and RAND Panel,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2009, pp. 334-343.
[51] G. Waghorn, D. Chant and R. King, “Work-related Subjective Experiences among Community Residents with Schizoaffective Disorder,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2005, pp. 288-299.
[52] G. J. Boyle and T. J. Lennon, “Examination of the Reliability and Validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory,” Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1994, pp. 173-187.
[53] H. Ascher-Svanum, “Development and Validation of a Measure of Patients’ Knowledge about Schizophrenia,” Psychiatric Services, Vol. 50, No. 4, 1999, pp. 561-563.
[54] R. N. Battista, “The scientific Basis of Health Services,” BMJ Publishing Group, London, 1996.
[55] R. J. Willke, L. B. Burke and P. Erickson, “Measuring Treatment Impact: A Review of Patient-Reported Outcomes and Other Efficacy Endpoints in Approved Product Labels,” Controlled Clinical Trials, Vol. 25, No. 6, 2004, pp. 535-552.
[56] N. E. Rothrock, K. A. Kaiser and D. Cella, “Developing a Valid Patient-Reported Outcome Measure,” Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Vol. 90, No. 5, 2011, pp. 737-742.
[57] M. Terre and K. D. Blanche, “Research in Practice: Applied Methods for the Social Sciences,” 2nd Edition, UTC Press, 2008.
[58] M. J. Miller, “Reliability and Validity,” RES 600: Graduate Research Methods, Western International University.
[59] M. Rothman, L. Burke, P. Erickson, et al., “Use of Existing Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Instruments and Their Modification: The ISPOR Good Research Practices for Evaluating and Documenting Content Validity for the Use of Existing Instruments and Their Modification PRO Task Force Report,” Value Health, Vol. 12, No. 8, 2009, pp. 1075-1083.
[60] S. N. Haynes, D. C. S. Richard and E. S. Kubany, “Content Validity in Psychological Assessment: A Functional Approach to Concepts and Methods,” Psychological Assessment, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1995, pp. 238-247.
[61] M. H. Frost, B. B. Reeve, A. M. Liepa, J. W. Stauffer and R. D. Hays, “Mayo/FDA Patient-Reported Outcomes Consensus Meeting Group. What Is Sufficient Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures?” Value Health, Vol. 10, Supplement 2, 2007, pp. S94-S105.
[62] M. Hersen, “Clinician’s Handbook of Adult Behavioral Assessment,” Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, 2006, p. 32.
[63] P. W. Stratford, J. M. Binkley, D. L. Riddle and G. H. Guyatt, “Sensitivity to change of the Roland-Morris Back Pain Questionnaire: Part 1,” Physical Therapy, Vol. 78, 1998, pp. 1186-1196.
[64] J. Carlson, S. Ochoa, J. M. Haro, G. Escartín, M. Ahuir, A. Gutierrez-Zotes, M. Salamero, J. Valero, S. Canizares, M. Bernardo, J. Canete and P. Gallo, “Adaptation and Validation of the Quality-of-Life Scale: Satisfaction with Life Domains Scale by Baker and Intagliata,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol. 50, No. 1, 2009, pp. 76-80.
[65] C. Lancon, G. Reine, M. C. Simeoni, V. Aghababian and P. Auquier, “Développement et Validation d’un Instrument d’Auto-évaluation de la Qualité de vie des Patients Souffrant de Schizophrénie: La S-QoL,” L’Encéphale, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2007, pp. 277-284.
[66] P. Auquier, M. C. Simeoni, C. Sapin, G. Reine, V. Aghababian, J. Cramer and C. Lancon, “Development and Validation of a Patient-Based Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire in Schizophrenia: The S-QoL,” Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 63, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 137-149.
[67] C. Sapin, P. Auquier, S. Robitail and M. C. Simeoni, “Preliminary Validation of the English Version of the Schizophrenia Quality of Life (S-QoL) Scale,” ISPOR Tenth Annual European Congress, Dublin, 2007.
[68] J. Caron, M. Corbière, C. Mercier, P. Diaz, N. Ricard and A. Lesage, “The Construct Validity of the Client Questionnaire of the Wisconsin Quality of Life Index—A Cross-Validation Study,” International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2013, pp. 128-138.
[69] P. Diaz, C. Mercier, R. Hachey, J. Caron and G. Boyer, “An Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Client’s Questionnaire of the Wisconsin Quality of Life Index-Canadian Version (CaW-QLI),” Quality of Life Research, Vol. 8, No. 6, 1999, pp. 509-514.
[70] G. Wilkinson, B. Hesdon, D. Wild, R. Cookson, C. Farina, V. Sharma, R. Fitzpatrick and C. Jenkinson, “Self-Report Quality of Life Measure for People with Schizophrenia: The SQLS,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 177, 2011, pp. 42-46.
[71] Y. Kaneda, A. Imakura, A. Fujii and T. Ohmori, “Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale: Validation of the Japanese Version,” Psychiatry Research, Vol. 113, No. 1, 2002, pp. 107-113.
[72] N. Luo, B. K. Seng, F. Xie, S. C. Li and J. Thumboo, “Psychometric Evaluation of the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS) in English-and Chinese-Speaking Asians in Singapore,” Quality of Life Research, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2007, pp. 115-122.
[73] P. J. Kuo, M. J. Chen-Sea, R. B. Lu, M. S. Chung, C. C. Kuo, W. C. Huang and H. I. Ma. “Validation of the Chinese Version of the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale Revision 4 (SQLS-R4) in Taiwanese Patients with Schizophrenia,” Quality of Life Research, Vol. 16, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1533-1538.
[74] L. Nadalet, F. S. Kohl, D. Pringuey and F. Berthier, “Validation of a Subjective Quality of Life Questionnaire (S.QUA.LA) in Schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 76, No. 1, 2005, pp. 73-81.
[75] A. Pitkanen, M. Valimaki, J. Endicott, J. Katajisto, T. Luukkaala, M. Koivunen, L. Kuosmanen and H. Hatonen, “Assessing Quality of Life in Patients with Schizophrenia in an Acute Psychiatric Setting: Reliability, Validity and Feasibility of the EQ-5D and the Q-LES-Q,” Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 66, No. 1 , 2012, pp. 19-25.
[76] M. Ritsner, R. Kurs, A. Gibel, Y. Ratner and J. Endicott, “Validity of an Abbreviated Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q-18) for schizophrenia, Schizoaffective, and Mood Disorder Patients,” Quality of Life Research, Vol. 14, No. 7, 2005, pp. 1693-1703.
[77] L. Prieto, D. Novick, J. A. Sacristán, E. T. Edgell and J. Alonso, “SOHO Study Group. A Rasch Model Analysis to Test the Cross-Cultural Validity of the EuroQoL-5D in the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 107, No. 416, 2003, pp. 24-29.
[78] L. Prieto, J. A. Sacristán, J. A. Hormaechea, A. Casado, X. Badia and J. C. Gómez, “Psychometric Validation of a Generic Health-Related Quality of Life Measure (EQ-5D) in a Sample of Schizophrenic Patients,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, Vol. 20, No. 6, 2004, pp. 827-835.
[79] N. Luo, B. K. Seng, J. Thumboo, D. Feeny and S. C. Li, “A study of the Construct Validity of the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) in Patients with Schizophrenia,” Quality of Life Research, Vol. 15, No. 5, 2006, pp. 889-898.
[80] P. Martin, H. Caci, J. M. Azorin, J. Daléry, M. C. Hardy-Baylé, D. Etienne, D. Gérard, C. S. Peretti and S. O. L. Grouped'étude, “A New Patient Focused Scale for Measuring Quality of Life in Schizophrenic Patients: The Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SOL),” L'Encephale, Vol. 31, No. 5, 2005 , pp. 559-566.
[81] D. Laliberte-Rudman, L. Hoffman, E. Scott and R. Renwick, “Quality of Life for Individuals with Schizophrenia: Validating an Assessment That Addresses Client Concerns and Occupational Issues,” Occupational Therapy Journal of Research: Occupation, Participation and Health, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2004, pp. 13-21.
[82] J. Barr, G. Schumacher and S. Ohman, “Comparison of Outcomes Reported by Individuals with Schizophrenia Residing in the Community and Objective Outcomes Reported by Caregivers,” ISPOR 10th Annual International Meeting, Washington, DC, 20-23 October 2005.
[83] J. Barr, G. Schumacher, S. Ohman and E. Mason, “Patient-Reported Outcomes: Do They Agree with Objective Caregiver-Reported Outcomes for Individuals with Schizophrenia Residing in the Community?” ISPOR 7th Annual European Congress, Hamburg, 24-26 October 2004.
[84] J. T. Barr, G. E. Schumacher, E. Mason, S. Ohman and A. Hanson, “SOAP-51: A Quality of Life Survey for Community-Residing Individuals with Schizophrenia,” ISPOR 4th Annual European Congress, Cannes, 11-13 November 2001.
[85] J. Adams, C. Le Reun, S. Crowley, V. Nand, A. Eggleston and R. Schrover, “Valuation of Schizophrenia-Related Health States by the General Population Using the AQoL, Time Trade-Off and Visual Analogue Scales,” ISPOR 10th Annual International Meeting, Washington, DC, 15-18 May 2005.
[86] J. Adams, C. Le Reun, S. Crowley, V. Nand and A. Eggleston, “Schizophrenia and Quality of Life Assessments,” (MH3) ISPOR 7th Annual European Congress, Hamburg, 24-26 October 2004.
[87] A. Ruppert, R. Waldeck, P. Cislo, K. Punger, T. Iwamoto, Y. Yuan, U. Osby, S. Bristol-Myers and B. Waterloo, “Health-Related Quality of Life in Outpatients with Schizophrenia in Singaphore,” (PMH17) ISPOR 6th Annual European Congress, Hamburg, 9-11 November 2003.
[88] P. Pedrelli, J. R. McQuaid, E. Granholm, T. L. Patterson, F. McClure, A. T. Beck and D. V. Jeste, “Measuring Cognitive Insight in Middle-Aged and Older Patients with Psychotic Disorders,” Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 71, No. 2, 2004, pp. 297-305.
[89] R. Roncone, C. Tozzini, M. Mazza, A. de Risio, P. Giosuè, P. Morosini and M. Casacchia, “Validation of the Italian Version of the Self Report Insight Scale,” Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2003, pp. 63-75.
[90] D. Travers, D. Levoyer and B. Millet, “Insight in Schizophrenia: Assessment of 31 Patients with Different Scales,” L’Encéphale, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2008, pp. 66-72.
[91] M. Bell, J. Fiszdon, R. Richardson, P. Lysaker and G. Bryson, “Are Self-Reports Valid for Schizophrenia Patients with Poor Insight? Relationship of Unawareness of Illness to Psychological Self-Report Instruments,” Psychiatry Research, Vol. 151, No. 1, 2007, pp. 37-46.
[92] E. Schaeffer and J. Wciórka, “Self-Rating Scales in Schizophrenia: Assessment of the Practical Applicability of the Paranoid-Depression Scale (PD-S), the Frankfurt Self-Feeling Scale (FBS) and of Two Visual Analogue Scales,” Psychiatria Polska, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2003, pp. 315-335.
[93] A. Osman, P. M. Gutierrez, J. L. Wong, S. Freedenthal and C. L. Bagge, “Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Suicide Anger Expression Inventory,” Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2010, pp. 595-608.
[94] H. A. Wolters, R. Knegtering, D. Wiersma and R. J. van den Bosch, “Evaluation of the Subjects’ Response to Antipsychotics Questionnaire,” International Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2006, pp. 63-69.
[95] A. Awad, L. Voruganti, J. Mackell and C. Siu, “Subjective Tolerability with Ziprasidone Vs Haloperidol in Acute Schizophrenia,” ISPOR 8th Annual International Meeting, Arlington, 18-21 May 2003.
[96] L. Fialko, P. A. Garety, E. Kuipers, G. Dunn, P. E. Bebbington, D. Fowler and D. Freeman, “A Large-Scale Validation Study of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS),” Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 100, No. 1, 2008, pp. 53-59.
[97] T. P. Hogan, A. G. Awad and R. Eastwood, “A Self-Report Scale Predictive of Drug Compliance in Schizophrenics: Reliability and Discriminative Validity,” Psychological Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1983, pp. 177-183.
[98] J. Chen, H. Ascher-Svanum, M. G. Case, A. Nyhuis, D. Faries, G. Phillips and D. O. Perkins, “Reasons for Continuing or Discontinuing Olanzapine in the Treatment of Schizophrenia from Patients’ and Clinicians’ Perspectives,” ISPOR 15th Annual International Meeting, Atlanta, 15-19 May 2010.
[99] A. W. Nyhuis, H. Ascher-Svanum, V. Stauffer, B. J. Kinon, D. E. Faries, G. A. Phillips and D. Perkins, “Reasons for Discontinuation and Continuation of Antipsychotic Therapy from Patient and Clinician Perspectives,” ISPOR 14th Annual International Meeting, Orlando, 16-20 May 2009.
[100] D. Rofail, R. Gray and K. Gournay, “The Development and Internal Consistency of the Satisfaction with Antipsychotic Medication Scale,” Psychological Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 7, 2005, pp. 1063-1072.
[101] C. R. Dolder, J. P. Lacro, K. A. Warren, S. Golshan, D. O. Perkins and D. V. Jeste, “Brief Evaluation of Medication Influences and Beliefs: Development and Testing of a Brief Scale for Medication Adherence,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2004, pp. 404-409.
[102] E. Lindstrom, T. Lewander, U. Malm, U. F. Malt, H. Lublin and U. G. Ahlfors, “Patient-Rated versus Clinician-Rated Side Effects of Drug Treatment in Schizophrenia. Clinical Validation of a Self-Rating Version of the UKU Side Effect Rating Scale (UKU-SERS-Pat),” Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 55, Suppl. 44, 2001, pp. 5-69.
[103] R. McGuire-Snieckus, R. McCabe, J. Catty, L. Hansson and S. Priebe, “A New Scale to Assess the Therapeutic Relationship in Community Mental Health Care: STAR,” Psychological Medicine, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2007, pp. 85-95.
[104] N. J. Preston and T. J. Harrison, “The Brief Symptom Inventory and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale: Discriminate Validity between a Self-Reported and Observational Measure of Psychopathology,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol. 44, No. , 2003, pp. 220-226.
[105] E. C. Atbasoglu, C. Kalaycioglu and E. Nalcaci, “Reliability and Validity of Turkish Version of Magical Ideation Scale in University Students,” Turk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2003, pp. 31-41.
[106] G. M. Galeazzi, P. Spiliopulos and P. Curci, “Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI): Presentazione Della Versione Italiana,” Italian Journal of Psychopathology, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2004, pp. 322-330.
[107] R. Mass, C. Haasen and E. J. Borgart, “Abnormal Subjective Experiences of Schizophrenia: Evaluation of the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory,” Psychiatry Research, Vol. 135, No. 2, 2004, pp. 91-101.
[108] M. J. Cuesta, V. Peralta and I. Irigoyen, “Factor Analysis of the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire in a Spanish Sample,” Psychopathology, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1996, pp. 46-53.
[109] T. W. Kallert and I. Nitsche, “Assessing the Opinions of Relatives on the Causes and Social Consequences of Different Mental Disorders: Are Instruments Cross-Culturally Valid?” Psychiatry Research, Vol. 158, No. 3, 2008, pp. 344-355.
[110] F. Hjarthag, L. Helldin and T. Norlander, “Psychometric Properties of the Burden Inventory for Relatives of Persons with Psychotic Disturbances,” Psychological Reports, Vol. 103, No. 2, 2008, pp. 323-335.
[111] K. T. Kronmüller, C. Krummheuer, F. Topp, S. Zipfel, W. Herzog and M. Hartmann, “The Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale,” Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie, Vol. 51, No. 9-10, 2001, pp. 377-383.
[112] M. C. Park, Y. H. Ko, S. W. Oh and J. I. Park, “The Utility of the MMPI-2 and PAI for Discriminating the Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression in Korea,” 23rd European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, ECNP Congress, Amsterdam, Conference Start: 28 August-1 September 2010.
[113] J. Van Os, A. C. Altamura, J. Bobes, J. Gerlach, J. S. Hellewell, S. Kasper, D. Naber and P. Robert, “Evaluation of the Two-Way Communication Checklist as a Clinical Intervention: Results of a Multinational, Randomised Controlled Trial,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 184, 2004, pp. 79-83.
[114] A. M. Dassori, A. L. Miller and P. J. Weiden, “The Approaches to Schizophrenia Communication (ASC) Tool. Including the Patient Perspective in Treatment,” Disease Management & Health Outcomes, Vol. 11, No. 11, 2003, pp. 699-708.
[115] M. Corbière, A. Lesage, S. Lauzon, N. Ricard and D. Reinharz, “Validation Francaise du Questionnaire ‘Verona Service Satisfaction Scale’ VSS-54F,” L’Encéphale, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2003, pp. 110-118.
[116] D. Bletsa and E. Kallinikou, “Translation, Greek Adaptation and Standardization of the verona Service Satisfaction scale (VSSS-54): An Instrument Patients’ Satisfaction with Mental Health Services,” (PMH18) ISPOR 8th European Congress, Florence, 6-8 November 2005.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.