Share This Article:

Glomalin Production and Infectivity of Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Fungi in Response to Grassland Plant Diversity

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:450KB) PP. 103-111
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.51013    3,786 Downloads   5,602 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT

Arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are integral components of most terrestrial ecosystems, with complex interactions between plants and AMF. Our study assessed the impact of plant diversity of native grassland species on AMF infectivity and production of glomalin, an AMF hyphal glycoprotein that may play an important role in soil aggregation. The study was conducted over a 3-year period in field plots planted with 1, 2, 8, or 16 plant species. The mycorrhizal infection potential (MIP) of the plots was assayed in the greenhouse. Glomalin production and MIP were lowest in monocultures and were more closely correlated with plant diversity than with plant cover. Spore density was also greater in higher diversity plots. Lower AMF activity in monoculture plots may contribute to lower productivity and soil quality in plant monocultures. Immunoreactive glomalin levels varied seasonally, with higher levels in late summer than in late spring. Positive correlations were found between glomalin levels and spore density, and between MIP and spore density, but not between MIP and glomalin.

Cite this paper

R. Burrows, "Glomalin Production and Infectivity of Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Fungi in Response to Grassland Plant Diversity," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 1, 2014, pp. 103-111. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.51013.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] M. F. Allen, “The Ecology of Mycorrhizae,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991.
[2] M. G. A. Van der Heijden, T. Boller, A. Wiemken and I. R. Sanders, “Different Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Species are Potential Determinants of Plant Community Structure,” Ecology, Vol. 79, No. 6, 1998, pp. 2082-2091.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079%5B2082:DAMFSA%5D2.0.CO;2
[3] M. G. A. Van der Heijden, J. N. Klironomos, M. Ursic, P. Moutoglis, R. Streitwolf-Engel, T. Boller, A. Wiemken and I. R. Sanders, “Mycorrhizal Fungal Diversity Determines Plant Biodiversity, Ecosystem Variability and Productivity,” Nature, Vol. 396, 1998, pp. 69-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/23932
[4] T. J. Danielle, A. Hodge, J. Peter, W. Young and A. Fitter, “How Many Fungi Does It Take to Change a Plant Community?” Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1999, pp. 81-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1360-1385(99)01380-1
[5] D. Johnson, P. J. Vandenkoornhuyse, J. R. Leake, L. Gilbert, R. E. Booth, J. P. Grime, J. P. W. Young and D. J. Read, “Plant Communities Affect Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Diversity and Community Composition in Grassland Microcosms,” New Phytologist, Vol. 161, No. 2, 2003, pp. 503-515.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00938.x
[6] R. C. Anderson, A. E. Liberta and L. A. Dickman, “Interaction of Vascular Plants and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi across a Soil Moisture-Nutrient Gradient,” Oecologia, Vol. 64, No. 1, 1984, pp. 111-117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00377552
[7] N. T. Hausmann and C. V. Hawkes, “Plant Neighborhood Control of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Community Composition,” New Phytologist, Vol. 183, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1188-1200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02882.x
[8] N. C. Johnson, D. R. Zak, D. Tilman and F. L. Pfleger, “Dynamics of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae during Old Field Succession,” Oecologia, Vol. 86, No. 3, 1991, pp. 349-358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00317600
[9] J. D. Bever, J. B. Morton, J. Antonovics and P. A. Schultz, “Host-Dependent Sporulation and Species Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Mown Grassland,” Journal of Ecology, Vol. 84, No. 1, 1996, pp. 71-82.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2261701
[10] A. H. Eom, D. C. Hartnett and G. W. T. Wilson, “Host Plant Effects on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities in Tallgrass Prairie,” Oecologia, Vol. 122, No. 3, 2000, pp. 435-444.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004420050050
[11] R. Sanders and A. H. Fitter, “Evidence for Differential Responses between Host-Fungus Combinations of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizas from a Grassland,” Mycological Research, Vol. 96, No. 6, 1992. pp. 415-419.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0953-7562(09)81084-8
[12] N. C. Johnson, D. Tilman and D. Wedin, “Plant and Soil Controls on Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities,” Ecology, Vol. 73, No. 6, 1992, pp. 2034-2042.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1941453
[13] R. M. Miller, “The Ecology and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae in Grassland Shrublands,” In: G. R. Safir, Ed., Ecophysiology of VA Mycorrhizal Plants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1987, pp. 135-170.
[14] R. L. Burrows and F. L. Pfleger, “Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Respond to Increasing Plant Diversity,” Canadian Journal of Botany, Vol. 80, No. 2, 2002, pp. 120-130.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/b01-138
[15] M. F. Allen, E. B. Allen and P. Stahl, “Differential Niche Response of Bouteloua gracilis and Pascopyrum smithii to VA Mycorrhizae,” Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Vol. 111, No. 3, 1984, pp. 361-365.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2995917
[16] Z. Kabir and R. T. Koide, “Effect of Autumn and Winter Mycorrhizal Cover Crops on Soil Properties, Nutrient Uptake and Yield of Sweet Corn in Pennsylvania, USA,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 238, No. 2, 2002, pp. 205-215.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014408723664
[17] D. Tilman, J. Knops, D. Wedin, P. Reich, M. Ritchie and E. Siemann, “The Influence of Functional Diversity and Composition on Ecosystem Processes,” Science, Vol. 277, No. 5330, 1997, pp. 1300-1302.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5330.1300
[18] D. Tilman, D. Wedin and J. Knopps, “Productivity and Sustainability Influenced by Biodiversity in Grassland Ecosystems,” Nature, Vol. 379, 1996, pp. 718-720.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/379718a0
[19] A. B. Hector, B. Schmid, C. Beierkehnlein, M. C. Caldeira, M. Diemer, P. G. Dimitrakopoulos, et al., “Plant Diversity and Productivity Experiments in European Grasslands,” Science, Vol. 286, No. 5442, 1999, pp. 1123-1127.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.286.5442.1123
[20] S. Bedini, E. Pellegrino, L. Avio, S. Pellegrini, P. Bazzoffi, E. Argese and M. Giovannetti, “Changes in Soil Aggregation and Glomalin-Related Soil Protein Content as Affected by the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Species Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 41, No. 7, 2009, pp. 1491-1496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.04.005
[21] R. M. Miller and J. D. Jastrow, “Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and Biogeochemical Cycling,” In: F. L. Pfleger and R. G. Linderman, Eds., Mycorrhizae and Plant Health, American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minn., 1994, pp. 189-212.
[22] R. P. Schreiner and G. J. Bethlenfalvay, “Mycorrhizal Interactions in Sustainable Agriculture,” Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, Vol. 15, No. 3-4, 1995, pp. 271-285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07388559509147413
[23] C. M. Rillig, S. F. Wright and E. T. Eviner, “The Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Glomalin in Soil Aggregation: Comparing Effects of Five Plant Species,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 238, No. 2, 2002, pp. 325-333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014483303813
[24] C. M. Rillig, “Arbuscular Mycorrhizae, Glomalin, and Soil Aggregation,” Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 84, No. 4, 2004, pp. 355-363.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/S04-003
[25] P. K. Singh, M. Singh and B. N. Tripathi, “Glomalin: An Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Soil Protein,” Protoplasma, Vol. 250, No. 3, 2013, pp. 663-669.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-012-0453-z
[26] S. F. Wright and A. Upadhyaya, “Extraction of an Abundant and Unusual Protein from Soil and Comparison with Hyphal Protein of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi,” Soil Science, Vol. 161, No. 9, 1996, pp. 575-586.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-199609000-00003
[27] S. F. Wright, M. Franke-Snyder, J. B. Morton and A. Upadhyaya, “Time-Course Study and Partial Characterization of a Protein on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Hyphae during Active Colonization of Roots,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 181, No. 2, 1996, pp. 193-203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00012053
[28] S. F. Wright and A. Upadhyaya, “A Survey of Soils for Aggregate Stability and Glomalin, a Glycoprotein Produced by Hyphae of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 198, No. 1, 1998, pp. 97-107.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1004347701584
[29] S. F. Wright and R. L. Anderson, “Aggregate Stability and Glomalin in Alternative Crop Rotations for the Central Great Plains,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, Vol. 31, No. 3-4, 2000, pp. 249-253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003740050653
[30] C. Grace and D. Stribley, “A Safer Procedure for Routine Staining of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi,” Mycological Research, Vol. 95, No. 10, 1991, pp. 1160-1162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0953-7562(09)80005-1
[31] S. F. Wright and A. Upadhyaya, “Quantification of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi activity by the Glomalin Concentration on Hyphal Traps,” Mycorrhiza, Vol. 8, No. 5, 1999, pp. 283-285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s005720050247
[32] R. Koide, “Functional Complementarity in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis [Commentary],” New Phytologist, Vol. 147, No. 2, 2000, pp. 233-235.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2000.00710.x
[33] F. A. Smith, I. Jakobsen and S. E. Smith, “Spatial Differences in Acquisition of Soil Phosphate between Two Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Symbiosis with Medicago truncatula,” New Phytologist, Vol. 147, No. 2, 2000, pp. 357-366.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2000.00695.x
[34] E. R. Lutgen, D. Muir-Clairmont, J. Graham and M. C. Rillig, “Seasonality of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Hyphae and Glomalin in a Western Montana Grassland,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 257, No. 1, 2003, pp. 71-83.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026224209597
[35] K. K. Treseder and M. F. Allen, “Mycorrhizal Fungi Have a Potential Role in Soil Carbon Storage under Elevated CO2 and Nitrogen Deposition,” New Phytologist, Vol. 147, No. 1, 2000, pp. 189-200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2000.00690.x.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.