Newcastle Disease Virus Isolation and Its Prevalence in Uganda Poultry Farms


The present research work was carried out to isolate and identify Newcastle disease virus (NDV) by using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and HA-HI virus isolation, embryonated eggs (EE) and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). A total of 95 clinical (blood, tracheal and cloacal swabs) and post-mortem (brain, lung, colon and spleen) samples were collected from chickens of field outbreaks of suspected Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The HI and HA-HI were employed to detect NDV in tissue homogenates of all the clinical and post-mortem samples as well as laboratory samples (AF and ICF). Among the four different types of post-mortem samples, virus isolation rate was found to be low in body organs. In CEF cell culture system, the rate of virus isolation from all the aforesaid samples was found to be at 100% with the exception of serum samples; while in tracheal and cloacal swabs, it was at 90%; while in serum, it was at 10%, in all clinical cases. The isolation rate of NDV was higher in CEF culture system (66.7%) compared to that of avian embryos (33.3%). Samples were inoculated and the allantoic fluid (AF) of the dead embryos and the infected culture fluid (ICF) of the CEF were harvested at 24 to 96 hours of the post-infection, respectively, which revealed that the virulent strain of NDV is highly prevalent in the region. The prevalence of NDV was established at 1.1%, 2.1% and 4.2% using HA-HI, EE, and CEF methods. Rapid detection and identification of the virus are crucial for the effective control of the disease as conventional diagnostic methods such as virus isolation on embryonated eggs followed by serological identification in haemagglutination-inhibition test are laborious and time-consuming. The speed of the diagnosis can be considerably increased by using methods based on molecular biology, e.g. reverse transcription—polymerase chain reaction. However, the genetic variability of APMV-1 isolates should be considered carefully as the potential cause for false negative results of genetic-based laboratory tests.

Share and Cite:

K. Kasozi, P. Ssuna, D. Tayebwa and M. Alyas, "Newcastle Disease Virus Isolation and Its Prevalence in Uganda Poultry Farms," Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2014, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.4236/ojvm.2014.41001.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] B. Nayak, S. N. Rout, S. Kumar, M. S. Khalil, M. M. Fouda, L. E. Ahmed, K. C. Earhart, D. R. Perez, P. L. Collins and S. K. Samal, “Immunization of Chickens with Newcastle Disease Virus Expressing H5 Hemagglutinin Protects against Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses,” PLoS One, Vol. 4, No. 8, 2009, Article ID: e6509.
http:// /pmc/articles/PMC2716524/
[2] S. Krishnamurthy, Z. Huang and S. K. Samal, “Recovery of a Virulent Strain of Newcastle Disease Virus from Cloned cDNA: Expression of a Foreign Gene Results in Growth Retardation and Attenuation,” Virology, Vol. 278, No. 1, 2000, pp. 168-182. /pubmed/11112492
[3] T. Nakaya, J. Cros, M. S. Park, Y. Nakaya, H. Zheng, et al., “Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus as a Vaccine Vector,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 75, No. 1, 2001, pp. 1868-1873.
[4] Z. Huang, S. Elankumaran, A. Panda and S. K. Samal, “Recombinant Immunization of Primates with a Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccine Via the Respiratory Tract Induces a High Titer of Serum Neutralizing Antibodies against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2003, pp. 11560-11568.
[5] J. M. DiNapoli, L. Yang, A. Suguitan Jr., S. Elankumaran, D. W. Dorward, et al., “Immunization of Primates with a Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccine Via the Respiratory Tract Induces a High Titer of Serum Neutralizing Antibodies against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2007, 11560-11568. 10.1128/JVI.00713-07
[6] Z. Huang, S. Elankumaran, A. S. Yunus and S. K. Samal, “A Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Expressing VP2 Protein of Infectio Us Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) Protects against NDV and IBDV,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 7, No. 8, 2004, pp. 10054-10063.
[7] J. Ge, G. Deng, Z. Wen, G. Tian, Y. Wang, et al., “Newcastle Disease Virus Based Live Attenuated Vaccine Completely Protects Chickens and Mice from l Ethal Challenge of Homologous and Heterologous H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 81, No. 1, 2007, pp. 150-158.
[8] J. Veits, D. Wiesner, W. Fuchs, B. Hoffmann, H. Granzow, et al., “Newcastle Disease Virus Expressing H5 Hemagglutinin Gene Protects Chickens against Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 103, No. 21, 2006, pp. 8197-8202.
[9] J. Steel, S. V. Burmakina, C. Thomas, E. Spackman, A. García-Sastre, D. E. Swayne and P. Palese, “A Combination in-ovo Vaccine for Avian Influenza Virus and Newcastle Disease Virus,” 2006.
[10] Newcastle, “Newcastle Disease,” University of Reading, Reading, 2002.
[11] M. O. Otim, E. K. Kabagambe, G. M. Mukiibi, H. Christensen and M. Bisgaard, “A Study of Risk Factors Associated with Newcastle Disease Epidemics in Village Free-Range Chickens in Uganda,” Tropical Animal Health and Production, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2007, pp. 27-35.
[12] J. Illango, G. Mukiibi-Muka, P. P. Abila, G. Musisi and A. Etoori, “The Value of the Newcastle Disease I-2 Thermostable Vaccine Use in the Rural Free-Range Poultry Management System in Uganda,” 2012.
[13] W. H. Allan and R. E. Gough, “A Standard Heamagglutination Inhibition Test for Newcastle Disease,” Veterinary Records, Vol. 95, No. 7, 1974, pp. 147-149.
[14] OIE, “Version Adopted by the World Assembly of Delegates of the OIE,” Newcastle Disease, 2012.
[15] J. C. Hierholzer and R. A. Killington, “Virus Isolation and Quantitation,” In: B. W. Mahy and H. I. Kangro, Eds., Virology Methods Manual Academic Press, London, 1996, pp. 25-46.
[16] OIE, “Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals,” Newcastle Disease, 2004.
[17] M. H. Haque, M. T. Hossain, M. T. Islam, M. A. Zinnah, M. S. R. Khan and M. A. Islam, “Isolation and Detection of Newcastle Disease Virus from Field Outbreaks in Broiler and Layer Chickens by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction,” 2012.
[18] T. B. Manin, L. O. Shcherbakova, I. A. Bochkov, V. V. El’nikov, I. P. Pchelkina, S. K. Starov and V. V. Drygin, “Characteristics of Field Isolates of Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated in the Course of Outbreaks in the Poultry Plant in the Leningrad Region in 2000,” Voprosy Virusologii, Vol. 47, No. 6, 2002, pp. 41-43.
[19] B. S. Seal, M. G. Wise, J. C. Pedersen, D. A. Senne, R. Alvarez, M. S. Scott, D. J. King, Q. Yu and D. R. Kapczynski, “Genomic Sequences of Low-Virulence Avian Paramyxovirus-1 (Newcastle Disease Virus) Isolates Obtained from Live-Bird Markets in North America Not Related to Commonly Utilized Commercial Vaccine Strains,” Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 106, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 7-16.
[20] D. J. Alexander and W. H. Allan, “Newcastle Disease Virus Pathotypes,” Avian Pathology, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1974, pp. 269-278.
[21] S. Chakrabarti, D. J. King, C. J. Cardona, C. Afonso, D. R. Kuney, D. Swayne and A. C. Gerry, “Detection and Isolation of Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus from FieldCollected Flies,” Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 44, No. 5, 2007, pp. 840-844. /doi/abs/10.1603/0022-2585%282007%2944% 5B840:DAIOEN% 5D2.0.CO%3B2
[22] W. M. Rogoff, E. C. Carbrey, R. A. Bram, T. B. Clark and G. H. Gretz, “Transmission of Newcastle Disease Virus by Insects: Detection in Wild Fannia spp. (Diptera: Muscidae),” Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1975, pp. 225-227. /publication/5928524_Detection_ and_isolation_of_exotic_Newcastle_ disease_virus_from_field -collected_flies

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.