Share This Article:

Forage Legume Seeds Submitted to in Vitro and in Situ Fermentation Techniques

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:378KB) PP. 66-70
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.412A1010    4,176 Downloads   5,329 Views  

ABSTRACT

The present study was carried out to evaluate the survival rate of four tropical legume seeds submitted to different periods of ruminal incubation simulated by in vitro and in situ fermentation. The species studied were butterfly pea, stylosanthes, archer and perennial soybean. Four Holstein dairy cows fistulated in rumen were used in the in situ stage. A completely randomized design was used, in a 4 × 6 factorial arrangement (four species, six treatment periods) in the in vitro stage, with four repetitions. A completely randomized block design, arranged in a 4 × 6 factorial scheme (four species × six incubation periods), was used in the in situ stage, with four repetitions. The seeds (50 units of only one species at each repetition) were placed in erlenmeyer flask (250 mL) and were put in a 10 × 15 cm nylon bag in the in vitro stage. The times of incubation were: 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 144 hours and the time zero was estimated in the laboratory. The results demonstrate that, when submitted to ruminal incubation, due to their hard and impermeable teguments, legume seeds presented high resistance potential, and, thus, greater chances of germinating after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of bovines, when defecated in pastures. However, stylosanthes are not recommended for insertion in bovine feeding for this purpose, because they do not resist ruminal digestion.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

B. Deminicis, H. Vieira, J. Almeida, S. Araújo, C. Filho, R. Araújo, D. Castagnara and D. Júnior, "Forage Legume Seeds Submitted to in Vitro and in Situ Fermentation Techniques," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 12A, 2013, pp. 66-70. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.412A1010.

References

[1] J. F. Valentim and J. C. Carneiro, “Dormancy Breaking and Planting of Kudzu in Farming Systems and Agroforestry,” Embrapa-CPAF-Acre, Rio Branco, Technical Instructions No. 17, 1998.
[2] B. B. Deminicis, J. C. C. Almeida, S. A. C. Araújo, M. C. Blume, H. D. Vieira and L. B. Dobbss, “Overcoming of Dormancy in Seeds of Eight Tropical Forage Legumes,” Archivos de Zootecnia, Córdoba, Vol. 56, No. 215, 2007, pp. 347-350.
[3] T. O. Silva, J. C. C. Almeida, N. S. Rocha, Z. S. Costa, G. P. Lima, P. H. Grassi, T. C. Ferreira, R. P. Araújo and J. B. R. Abreu, “Dispersal and Germination of Tropical Forage Legumes in the Faeces of Cattle,” International Congress of Animal Science, Londrina, 2007, p. 201.
[4] S. Stender, P. Poschlod, E. Vauk-Hentzelt and T. Dernedde, “Die Ausbreitung Durch Galloway-Rinder,” Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Ökologie, Vol. 27, 1997, pp. 173-180.
[5] R. J. Pakeman, G. Digneffe and J. L. Small, “Ecological Correlates of Endozoochory by Herbivores,” Functional Ecology, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2002, pp. 296-304.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2435.2002.00625.x
[6] P. J. Van Soest, “Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant,” 2nd Edition, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1994.
[7] J. M. A. Tilley and R. A. Terry, “A Two-Stage Technique for the in Vitro Digestion of Forage Crops,” Journal of the British Grassland Society, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1963, pp. 104-111.
[8] G. T. Santos, U. Cecato and L. P. Rigolon, “Chemical Composition and in Situ Fermentation of Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and Desmodium (Desmodium ovalifolium) Undergoing Conservation in the Form of Hay and Silage,” Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society of Animal Science, Fortaleza, July 1996, pp. 347-349.
[9] N. F. Seiffert, “Methods of Seed Scarification Tropical Forages,” EMBRAPA Gado de Corte, Campo Grande, 6 Pages. (Technical Communication, 13), 1982.
[10] S. Prasad, J. Krishnaswamy, R. Chellam and S. P. Goyal, “Ruminant-Mediated Seed Dispersal of an Economically Valuable Tree in Indian Dry Forest,” Biotropica, Vol. 38, No. 5, 2006, pp. 679-682.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2006.00182.x
[11] D. H. Janzen, M. W. Demment and J. B. Robertson, “How Fast and Why Do Germinating Guanacaste Seeds (Enterolobium cyclocarpum) Die inside Cows and Horses?” Biotropica, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1985, pp. 322-325.
[12] A. Robles and J. Castro, “Effect of Thermal Shock and Ruminal Incubation on Seed Germination in Helianthemum apenninum (L.) Mill. (Cistaceae),” Acta Botánica Malacitana, No. 27, 2002, pp. 41-47.
[13] A. M. Mouissie, C. E. J. V. D. Veen, G. F. Veen and R. V. Diggelen, “Ecological Correlates of Seeds Survival after Ingestion by Fallow Deer,” Functional Ecology, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2005, pp. 284-290.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0269-8463.2005.00955.x
[14] I. Izhaki and D. G. Ne’eman, “Hares (Lepus spp.) as Seed Dispersers of Retama raetam (Fabaceae) in a Sandy Landscape,” Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 37, No. 2, 1997, pp. 343-354.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jare.1997.0273
[15] B. P. Ortega, M. L G. Viana and S. M. Larenas, “Seed Germination of Caesalpinia paraguariensis (Fabaceae): Agents of Livestock Scarifiers and Effect,” Journal of Tropical Biology, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2001, pp. 301-304.
[16] B. Peco, L. Lopez-Merino and M. Alvir, “Survival and Germination of Mediterranean Grassland Species after Simulated Sheep Ingestion: Ecological Correlates with Seed Traits,” Actaoecologica, Vol. 30, 2006, pp. 269-275.
[17] D. H. Janzen, “Enterolobium cyclocarpum Seed Passage Rate and Survival in Horses, Costa Rican Pleistocene Seed Dispersal Agents,” Journal of Ecology, Vol. 62, No. 3, 1981, pp. 593-601.
[18] R. M. Peinetti, M. A. Pereyra, A. Kin and A. Sosa, “Effect of Cattle Ingestion on Viabilty and Germination Rate of Caldén (Prosopis caldenia) Seeds,” Journal of Range Management, Vol. 46, No. 6, 1993, pp. 483-486.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4002856
[19] M. Campos and M. Ojeda, “Dispersal and Germination of Prosopis flexuosa (Fabaceae) Seeds by Desert Mammals in Argentina,” Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1997, pp. 707-714.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jare.1996.0196
[20] B. P. Ortega, “Emergency and Survival of Seedlings of Prosopis ferox Cardones National Park. (Salta, Argentina),” Licentiate Thesis, Universidad Nacional de Salta, Salta, 1999.
[21] M. A. Manhñes, L. C. S. Assis and E R. M. Castro, “Frugivory and Seed Dispersal of Miconia urophylla (Melastomataceae) by Birds in a Fragment of Secondary Atlantic Forest in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil,” Brazilian Journal of Ornithology, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2003, pp. 173-180.
[22] E. R. Chang, E. L. Zozaya, D. P. J. Kuijper and J. P. Bakker, “Seed Dispersal by Small Herbivores and Tidal Water: Are They Important Filters in the Assembly of Salt-Marsh Communities?” Functional Ecology, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2005, pp. 665-673.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2435.2005.01011.x

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.