A further review of the genetic and phenotypic nature of diabetes mellitus


Background: The organs in the body function in coherent organ networks. These organ networks are commonly known as physiological systems. Blood Glucose, Blood Pressure and pH exhibit the characteristics of neurally regulated Physiological Systems. Any medical condition, such as diabetes, has origins which are due to systemic dysfunction. This influences the genetic expression of proteins and the rate at which such expressed proteins subsequently react. Increased levels of acidity influence the levels of available minerals, protein conformation, and hence the rate at which expressed proteins such as insulin and leptin react or function. This is particularly significant in diabetes etiology where a deficiency of insulin and insulin-“resistance” are significant features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Proteins such as Insulin absorb and emit light. Moreover, the spectrum and intensity of the bioluminescence emitted from glycated proteins (which are more significantly bioluminescent) influence colour perception. Accordingly, changes to the diabetic’s colour perception can be used as the basis of a cognitive screening technique which is able to quantify the influence of genotype and phenotype. This may have significant advantages over current biomarker techniques which are not able to satisfactorily determine the earliest onset of diabetes or distinguish between the symptomatic and presymptomatic onset of diabetes. Such methodology, based upon the properties of proteins, i.e. effectively, the rate at which proteins are expressed and the rate at which such expressed proteins subsequently react, allows the clinician to quantify genotype and phenotype and may contribute to a greater understanding of the processes responsible for what are commonly known as type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this article is to highlight the limitations of the current techniques used to diagnose diabetes and to highlight, at least from the theoretical perspective, the significance of the autonomic nervous system and physiological systems; in particular, how changes to colour perception are related to the function and/or stability of the autonomic nervous system; and how such phenomena can be used diagnostically. This article discusses this methoda mathematical model of the autonomic nervous system and physiological systemswhich has been incorporated into the prototype technology Virtual Scanning; and in conclusion, illustrates how Diabetes appears to be a problem of acidity and consequently of mineral deficiency. It outlines how genotype and phenotype are both significant factors in the regulation of Blood Glucose, i.e. type 1 diabetes is predominantly genetic and is associated with hypoglycaemia whilst type 2 diabetes is due to environmental or phenotypic cause and is associated with hyperglycaemia. Both can occur simultaneously and hence explain why someone with type 2 diabetes may be prescribed insulin, i.e. in order to quantify the extent of a pathology such as diabetes mellitus and/or any other common pathology, it appears necessary to quantify the influence of genotype (genetic capacity) and phenotype (physiological demand). Accordingly the categorisation of diabetes as type 1 and type 2 may be misleading.

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Ewing, G. and Grakov, I. (2013) A further review of the genetic and phenotypic nature of diabetes mellitus. Case Reports in Clinical Medicine, 2, 538-553. doi: 10.4236/crcm.2013.29140.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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