Polymicrogyria of the Unilateral Temporal Lobe in a Transsexual Patient—Case Report


Introduction: Polymicrogyria, the appearance of irregular small and over numbered gyri on the surface of the brain, has been reported as the most frequent finding, when exists, on the temporal lobe. Case Presentation: A patient, male, age of 35, came to the regular head and brain MRI scan due to psychiatric and hormonal treatment within transsexualism. There were no data of epilepsy in a patient’s history. MRI scans were acquired with a 1.5 T Siemens Magnetom system with a standard head coil. Three-dimensional 3D RAGE, contiguous 1.0 mm slice, and 1 acquisition sequence underwent final 3D rendering and subsequent volumetry. On the definitive 3D image, we have revealed an unusual gyrisation on the left temporal lobe which had a picture of partial polymicrogyria. Conclusion: This is a unique finding, to our knowledge, of the unilateral temporal polymicrogyria in a person with transsexualism. Although polymicrogyria is mostly related to epileptifom attacks, its impact on the transsexualism appearance is opened to be examined.

Share and Cite:

A. Starcevic, D. Zigic and B. Filipovic, "Polymicrogyria of the Unilateral Temporal Lobe in a Transsexual Patient—Case Report," Neuroscience and Medicine, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2013, pp. 263-266. doi: 10.4236/nm.2013.44037.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] P. T. Cohen-Kettenis and L. J. Gooren, “Transsexualism, a Review of Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 46, No. 4, 1999, pp. 315-333.
[2] A. J. Barkovich, “Current Concepts of Polymicrogyria,” Neuroradiology, Vol. 52, No. 6, 2010, pp. 479-487.
[3] R. J. Leventer, A. Jansen, D. T. Pilz, N. Stoodley, C. Marini, F. Dubeau, et al., “Clinical and Imaging Heterogeneity of Polymicrogyria: A Study of 328 Patients,” Brain, Vol. 133, No. 5, 2010, 1415-1427.
[4] A. J. Barkovich, P. Gressens and P. Evrard, “Formation, Maturation and Disorders of Brain Neocortex,” AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, Vol. 13, 1992, pp. 423-446.
[5] J. N. Zhou, M. A. Hofman, L. J. Gooren and D. F. Swaab, “A Sex Difference in the Human Brain and Its Relation to Transsexuality,” Nature, Vol. 378, No. 6552, 1995, pp. 68-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/378068a0
[6] S. M. Corsello, V. Di Donna and P. Senes, et al., “Biological Aspects of Gender Disorders,” Minerva Endocrinologica, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2011, pp. 325-339.
[7] A. M. Bao and D. F. Swaab, “Sex Differences in the Brain, Behaviour, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders,” Neuroscientist, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2010, pp. 550-565.
[8] C. Kraus, “Am I My Brain or My Genitals? A Nature-Culture Controversy in the Hermaphrodite Debate from the Mid-1960s to the Late 1990s,” Gesnerus, Vol. 68, No. 1, 2011, pp. 80-106.
[9] A. A. Lawrence, “A Critique of the Brain-Sex Theory of Transsexualism,” Transsexual Women’s Resources, 2007.
[10] I. Savic, A. Garcia-Falgueras and D. F. Swaab, “Sexual Differentiation of the Human Brain in Relation to Gender IDENTITY and Sexual Orientation,” Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 186, 2010, pp. 41-62.
[11] D. F. Swaab, L. J. Gooren and M. A. Hofman, “Gender and Sexual Orientation in Relation to Hypothalamic Structures,” Hormone Research, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1992, pp. 51-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000182597
[12] D. F. Swaab, “Sexual Differentiation of the Human Brain: Relevance for Gender Identity, Transsexualism and Sexual Orientation,” Gynecological Endocrinology, Vol. 19, No. 6, 2004, pp. 301-312.
[13] L. Gooren, “The Biology of Human Psychosexual Differentiation,” Hormones and Behavior, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2006, pp. 589-601
[14] A. M. Bao and D. F. Swaab, “Sexual Differentiation of the Human Brain: Relation to Gender Identity, Sexual Orientation and Neuropsychiatric Disorders,” Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2011, pp. 214-226.
[15] D. F. Swaab, “Sexual Differentiation of the Brain and Behaviour,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2007, pp. 431-444.
[16] W. C. Chung, G. J. De Vries and D. F. Swaab, “Sexual Differentiation of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Humans May Extend into Adulthood,” Neuroradiology, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2002, pp. 1027-1033.
[17] A. Garcia-Falgueras and D. F. Swaab, “A Sex Difference in the Hypothalamic Uncinate Nucleus: Relationship to Gender Identity,” Brain, Vol. 131, No. 12, 2008, pp. 3132-3146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awn276
[18] F. P. M. Kruijver, J. N. Zhou, C. W. Pool, M. A. Hofman, L. J. Gooren and D. F. Swaab, “Male-to-Female Transsexuals Have Female Neuron Numbers in a Limbic Nucleus,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 85, No. 5, 2000, p. 2034.
[19] M. Rijpkema, D. Everaerd, C. van der Pol, B. Franke, I. Tendolkar and G. Fernández, “Normal Sexual Dimorphism in the Human Basal Ganglia,” Human Brain Mapping, Vol. 33, No. 5, 2011, pp. 1346-1252.
[20] J. Brabec, J. Kráseny and P. Petrovicky, “Volumetry of Striatum and Pallidum in Man—Anatomy, Cytoarchitecture, Connections, MRI and Aging,” Sbornik Lekaisky, Vol. 104, No. 1, 2003, pp. 13-65.
[21] Y. Miyahira, J. Yu, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Shimazaki and Y. Takeda, “Brain Volumetric MRI Study in Healthy Elderly Persons Using Statistical Parametric Mapping,” Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, Vol. 106, No. 2, 2004, pp. 138-151.
[22] L. G. Almeida Montes, J. Ricardo-Garcell, L. B. Barajas De La Torre, et al., “Clinical Correlations of Grey Matter Reductions in the Caudate Nucleus of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,” Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2010, pp. 238-246.
[23] A. J. Barkovich, “MRI Analysis of Sulcation Morphology in Polymicrogyria,” Epilepsia, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2010, pp. 17-22.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.