Development of Deterministic Thinking Scale Based on Iranian Culture


One of major cognitive distortions is deterministic thinking. This type of thinking ignores any possibility or probability in conclusion about the events. Any consequence of event may be thought such as: 2 × 2 = 4. Equality is a dominant factor among all conclusions of this kind of distortion. In Islamic perspective, the distortion is seen as a destructive factor for ruining balance of fear and hope, which is to be an important sign of people’s faith. The distortion emerges in cognitive rigidity in the mind which may be mother of all distortions. Cognitive rigidity is a main reason for depression and other psychosocial maladjustment. The scale with 36 items was developed in first phase of this study. Its validity and reliability were measured among men and women. It had reasonable and significant correlation with Beck Depression Inventory (p ≤ .05) and also showed reasonable internal reliability (α = .8218). Through factor analysis, five factors appeared in this type of thinking to be related to General deterministic thinking, Deterministic thinking in interaction with people, Absolute view in thinking, Deterministic thinking in prediction of future and Deterministic thinking in negative events.

Share and Cite:

Younesi, J. & Mirafzal, A. (2013). Development of Deterministic Thinking Scale Based on Iranian Culture. Psychology, 4, 808-812. doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.411116.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Al tamimi Al madi, A. (1979). Ghorar Al hekam and dorar Al kalam. Beirut: Institute of Al ailami Press.
[2] Baron, J. (2000). Thinking and deciding (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[3] Beck, A. T. (2008). The evolution of the cognitive model of depression and its neurobiological correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 969-977.
[4] Beck, A. T. (1975). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. International Universities Press Inc.
[5] Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., & Harrison, R. (1983). Cognition attitudes and personality dimentions in depression. British Journal of Cognitive Psycholtherapy, 1, 1-16.
[6] Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Show, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.
[7] Borooghani, M. (2010). Prediction of forgiveness by deterministic thinking among couples who are volunteers for divorce. Unpuplished M.Sc. Thesis, Tehran: University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences.
[8] Burns, D. D. (1989). The feeling good handbook. New York: William Morrow and Co.
[9] Clarck, D., & Fairburn, M. (1997). Practice of cognitive behavior therapy. London: Oxford Press.
[10] Del Missier, F., Ferrante, D., & Costantini, E. (2007). Focusing effects in predecisional information acquisition. Acta Psychologica, 125, 155-174.
[11] Faizol Al Islam, A. (1973). Translation and explanation of Nahjo Al balagheh. Tehran: Islamieh Press.
[12] Fleck, L., & Weiss, K. (2003). The art of fact. Evolutionary Antropology, 12, 168-172.
[13] Fincham, F. D., Harold, G. T., & Gano-Philips, S. (2000). The longitudinal association between attributions and marital satisfaction. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 267-285.
[14] Gertner, J. (2003). The future pursuit of happiness. New York times magazine.
[15] Ghommi, & Sheikh, A. (1989). Mafatih Al Janan. Tehran: Loghman Press.
[16] Gottman, J. M., Coan, J., Carrère, S., & Swanson, C. (1998). Predicting marital happiness and stability from newlywed interactions. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 5-22.
[17] Jaafari, & Mohammad, T. (1981). Scientific cognition in perspective of Quran. Islamic Culture Press.
[18] Klaff, F. (2007). Children of divorce. In F. Shapiro et al. (Eds.), Handbook of EMDR and family therapy processes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
[19] Koleini, & Seghet Al Islam (1980). Osool Al Kaffi. Tehran: Mostafavi Press.
[20] Leahy, T. H. (1987). A history of psychology. Main currents in Psychological thought. McGraw-Hill, NJ: Prentice-Hall International Edition.
[21] Leahy, R. L. (1996). Cognitive therapy: Basic principles and applications. Bergen County, NJ: Northvale.
[22] Maghsoudzade, M. (2010). Prediction of marital satisfaction of shaded sons and spouses by Rate of deterministic thinking and communication skills. Unpuplished M.Sc. Thesis, Tehran: University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences.
[23] Momeni, A. (2008). Measuring sensitivity of deterministic thinking scale among happy and unhappy couples. Unpublished M.A. Dissertation in Clinical Psychology, Tehran: Islamic Azad University. Center of Sciences and Researches.
[24] Rah Anjam, H. (2010). Prediction of hope rate by deterministic thinking among in students of Azad Universities of Tehran. Unpuplished M.Sc. Thesis, Tehran: University of Azad (Central branches).
[25] Rottenstreich, Y., & Hsee, C. K. (2001). Money, kisses, and electric shocks: On the affective psychology of risk. Psychological Science, 12, 185-190.
[26] Schkade, D. A., & Kahneman, D. (1998). Does living in California make people happy? A focusing illusion in judgments of life satisfaction. Psychological Science, 9, 340-346.
[27] Shapiro, F. (2007). EMDR and case conceptualization from an adaptive information processing perspective. In F. Shapiro et al. (Eds.), Handbook of EMDR and family therapy processes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
[28] Smit, Jasper, A. J., Rosenfield, D., & Mcdonald, R. (2006). Cognitive mechanism of Social anxiety reduction: An examination of specificity and temporality. Journal of Counsulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 1203-1212.
[29] Sommers-Flanagan, J., & Sommers-Flanagan, R. (2004). Counseling and psychotherapy. Theories in context and practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Willy.
[30] Teasdale, J. D. (1993). Emotion and two kinds of thinking: Cognitive Therapy and applied Cognitive Sciences. Behavioural Research and Therapy, 31, 339-354.
[31] Teasdale, J. D., & Bernard, P. J. (1993). Affect, cognition and change. Remodeling depressive thought. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
[32] Younesi, J., & Mirafzal, A. (2007). Development of deterministic thinking questionnaire. Paper Presented to 10th European Congress of Psychology. Prague.
[33] Younesi, J., Younesi, M., & Asgari, A. (2008). Prediction of rate of marital satisfaction among Tehranian couples by deterministic thinking. Paper Presented to 28th International Congress of Psychology, Berlin.
[34] Younesi, J. (2005). The major role of cognitive misconceptions “equality in thinking” in psychological disorders. A Journal of Social Sciences And Humanities. The Research Institute of Seminary & University (HAWZEH VA DANESHGAH), 10, 8-29.
[35] Younesi, J., & Bahrami, F. (2009). Prediction of rate of marital satisfaction among Tehranian couples by deterministic thinking. Journal of Iranian Psychologists, 14, 34-43.
[36] Warner, R. (2000). The environment of schizophrenia. London & Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge.
[37] Weissar, M. E., & Beck, A. T. (1992). Hopelessness and suicide. International Review of Psychiatry, 4, 177-184.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.