Applying Conventional Combustion Science and Technology to Alternative Energy Resources in Industrial Systems


Life is hinged on energy and a good and sustainable source is the penultimate desire of all nations. Now faced with the impending decline in the oil reserves, attempts have been and are being made to control the use. Yet beyond all the control strategies, the time approaches when the world supply will become inadequate. The very high rate of regeneration of grasses, weeds and leaves shows that it will be environmentally friendly to use as fuel, for the carbon dioxide that will be released when they are burnt will be required for their regeneration. In this study, attention is focused on designing a burner to combust these materials in an industrial setting. The result shows that the temperature profile for pulverized lower grade biomass fuel rises slowly and tends to stabilize at 438℃. It was also discovered that the cost of a heating process can be drastically reduced as it costs $8 when using the cooking gas and $4.66 when using the mixture of the new fuel and cooking gas. Thus by using this new fuel or a mixture of it, not only will the cost of heating processes be reduced, but also the life of the existing known conventional resources will be prolonged.

Share and Cite:

O. Odia and J. Asalor, "Applying Conventional Combustion Science and Technology to Alternative Energy Resources in Industrial Systems," Energy and Power Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 9, 2013, pp. 570-576. doi: 10.4236/epe.2013.59062.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] E. S. Cassedy and P. E. Grossman, “Introduction to Energy,” 1st Edition, Cambridge University Press, London, 1998.
[2] M. Crawford, “Back to the Energy Crisis,” Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1987, pp. 626-627.
[3] J. Gaver, R. Kaufmann, D. Skole and C. Vorosmarty, “Beyond Oil,” Ballinger, Cambridge, 1986.
[4] P. G. LeBel, “Energy Economics and Technology,” 1st Edition, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1982.
[5] T. U. Nef, “An Early Energy Crisis and Its Consequences,” Scientific American, New York, 1977, pp 141151.
[6] D. D. Dunn, “Renewable Energies,” 1st Edition, P. Peregrinius Ltd, London, 1989.
[7] J. B. Johansson and H. Kelly, “Renewable Energy Sources for Fuels and Electricity,” Island Press, Washington DC, 1993.
[8] The Problem of Waste Disposal: International Atomic Energy Agency International Institute of Applied System Analism, 2002.
[9] E. M. Goodger, “Hydrocarbon Fuels,” 1st Edition, Macmillan Press, London, 1975.
[10] E. M. Goodger, “Alternative Fuels,” 1st Edition, the Macmillan Press Ltd, London, 1980.
[11] D. C. Ion, “Availability of World Energy Resources,” Graham and TrotMan, London, 1975.
[12] I. J. Blood Worth, E. Bossayi, D. S. Bowers, E. A. C. Crouch, R. J. Eden, C. W. Hope, W. S. Humphrey, J. B. Mitchell, D. J. Pullin and J. A. Staislaw, “World Energy Demand to 2020,” Proceedings of World Energy Conference, IPC Science and Technology Press, Guildford, 1978.
[13] J. T. Mcmullan, R. Morgan and R. B. Murray, “Energy, Resources and Supply,” John Wiley & Sons, London, 1976.
[14] M. Slesser, “Dictionary of Energy,” Macmillan Press, London, 1982.
[15] D. H. Meadows and D. L. Meadows, “Beyond the Limits,” Chelsea Green Publishers, Burlinton, 1992.
[16] D. W. Pearce and R. K. Turner; “Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment,” John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1999.
[17] M. H. Ross and R. H. Williams; “Our Energy-Regaining Control,” McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981.
[18] R. Stobaugh and D. Yergin, “Energy Future,” Vintage, New York, 1983.
[19] OWEM Series Report, 2002.
[20] T. K. Ghosh, “Prospects of Biomass Energy,” International Symposium on Bioconversion and Biochemical Engineering, BERC, ITT, Delhi, 1980.
[21] R. M. Gifford, “Carbon Storage by Biosphere,” Australian Academy of Sciences, Canberra, 1985, pp162-180.
[22] H. F. Lieth, “Patterns of Primary Productivity in the Biosphere,” Hutchison Ross, Stroudsburg, 1978.
[23] J. P. Cooper, “Potential Production and Energy Conversion in Temperate and Topical Grasses,” Bureau of Pastures and Forage Crops, 1970, pp. 1-5.
[24] J. C. Menault, “African Savanna, Biological Systems of Humidification and Mineralization,” Common Wealth Agricultural Bureaux, Melbourne, Australia, 1984.
[25] J. I. Casedy, “The Effect of Rainfall, Moisture and Harvesting Intensity on Grass Production on Two Range Sites in Kenya,” East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, Vol. 39, 1973, pp. 26-36.
[26] R. G. Strugnell and C. L. D. Pigott, “Biomass, Shoot Production And Grazing In Uganda,” Journal of Ecology, Vol. 66, No. 1, 1978, pp. 73-97.
[27] O. O. Osadolor, “Availability of Grasses, Weeds and Leaves as Energy Resource,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2009, pp. 486-491.
[28] C. E. Ohiagu and T. G. Wood, “Grass Production and Decomposition in Southern Quinea Savanna, Nigeria,” Oecologie, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1979, p. 155.
[29] M. L. A. Owaga, “Primary Productivity and Herbage Utilization by Herbivores in Kenya,” African Journal of Ecology, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1980, pp. 1-5.
[30] I. K. Deshmuk and M. N. Baig, “The Significance of Grass Mortality in the Estimation of Primary Production in African Grassland,” African Journal of Ecology, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1983, pp. 19-23.
[31] I. K. Deshmukh, “Primary Production of Glass Land in Nairobi,” Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1986, pp. 115-123.
[32] W. Liese, “Progress in Bamboo Research,” Journal of Bamboo Research, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1989, pp. 2-16.
[33] H. S. Wayne and R. F. James, “Methane from Biomass: A System Approach,” Elsevier Applied Science, London, 1988.
[34] A. G. Alexander, “The Energy Cane Alternative,” Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 1985.
[35] M. J. Robert, “Measurement of Plant Biomass and Net Primary Productivity,” Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1985.
[36] D. T. Vanizelos, “A Report on Testing of the COOLMIX-100 Burner,” Internal John Zink Report, 2000.
[37] J. G. Singer, “Combustion of Fossil Fuel Powered Systems,” 3rd Edition, Combustion Engineering Inc., Windsor, 1981.
[38] J. O. Asalor, “Calculation of Laminar Premixed And Diffusion Flames with Fast Chemical Reaction Using A Self-Consistent Method,” Proceeding of Second International Conference, Venice, 1998, pp. 1257-1270.
[39] C. E. Baukal Jr., “Industrial Burners Handbook,” CRC Press, New York, 2004.
[40] C. H. Markstein, “Scaling of Radiative Characteristics of Turbulent Diffusion Flames,” 16th Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1976.
[41] J. H. Kent and H. G. Wagner, “Temperature and Fuel Effects in Sooting Flames,” 20th Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1984, pp. 1007-1015.
[42] C. E. Baukal Jr., V. Y. Gershtein and X. M. Li, “Computational Fluid Dynamics in Industrial Combustion,” CRC Press, New York, 2001.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.