On the Ionization Energy of the Outer Electrons of Atoms and Their Ions


An empirical formula is proposed to calculate the total binding energy of the outer electrons of atoms and their ions to a high accuracy. It is the authors’ opinion that the validity of the proposed formula testifies that electronic shells have some “spatial structures”, and the nature of which depends neither on the nucleus charge, nor on the number of the electrons in a shell.

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N. Gudkov and V. Shuvalov, "On the Ionization Energy of the Outer Electrons of Atoms and Their Ions," Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 11, 2013, pp. 1486-1489. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2013.411178.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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