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Quantitative differentiation of phenolic compounds in different varieties of buckwheat cultivars from China, Japan and Korea

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DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2013.24016    4,412 Downloads   7,098 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the variation of phenolic compounds in common and tartary buckwheats collected from China, Japan and Korea. Two buckwheat varieties of each country were cultivated using nutrient solution and vermiculite in the greenhouse from February to May, 2012 and harvested at two-week intervals. Phenolics such as chlorogenic acid, C-glycosylflavones (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin), rutin, and quercetin were quantified using high performance liquid chroma-tography (HPLC). At 17, 29, 44, 58, and 72 days after sowing (DAS), before harvesting each organs, rutin content of cultivars from China and Korea at 17 DAS was the highest (mean 43.63 and 39.95 mg?g–1 DW, respectively) than that of 29 and 44 DAS. However, two varieties from Japan at 44 DAS were documented maximum; whereas, the amount of rutin in “Hokkai T10” harvested at 44 DAS (58.36 mg?g–1 DW) was the highest of all cultivars. Rutin level in the leaves and stems at 72 DAS were comparatively higher than at 58 DAS. The highest of rutin content was found at 72 DAS (73.33 mg?g–1 DW) in “Hokkai T10” leaves followed by “Daegwan No.3-3” (61.13 mg?g–1 DW), “rice tartary” (53.89 mg?g–1 DW). Rutin content of flowers was presented as the highest amount in “Hokkai T10” at 72 DAS (88.3 mg?g–1 DW) was approximately 14-fold higher than that of 58 DAS (6.44 mg?g–1 DW). However, rutin content of flower in “Xiqiao No.2” was 3-fold higher at 72 DAS than at 58 DAS. Rutin and total phenolic compounds content in flowers, leaves, and stems were higher in the order. The content of four C-glycosylflavones in common buckwheat was higher than those in tartary buckwheat, but rutin content which accounted >90% of the total phenolic compounds was higher in tartary buckwheat. The highest amounts of chlorogenic acid and quercetin were measured in the flower of “Xiqiao No.2” (6.85 and 11.69 mg?g–1 DW, respectively). Based on these results, the presence of different phenolic compounds in all the varieties of buckwheat confirmed that it can be regarded as a potent source of functional foods.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

J. Seo, D. Lee, M. Valan Arasu, Q. Wu, T. Suzuki, Y. Yoon, S. Lee, S. Park and S. Kim, "Quantitative differentiation of phenolic compounds in different varieties of buckwheat cultivars from China, Japan and Korea," Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2013, pp. 109-116. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2013.24016.

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