Fluorosis and Dental Caries in the Hydrogeological Environments of Southeastern Communities in the State of Morelos, Mexico

DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.49115   PDF   HTML     3,372 Downloads   5,131 Views   Citations


Objectives: 1) To identify the hydrogeological characteristics and fluoride (F-) concentration in drinking water in the southeast of the state of Morelos, Mexico, and 2) to estimate the association between the prevalence and severity of fluorosis, dental caries, and water F- concentration. Methods: A hydrogeological model was developed to determine the vertical distribution of lithostratigraphic units, rocks’ hydraulic conductivities, and groundwater flow characteristics. A total of 649 schoolchildren from two communities received oral examinations. One community was located in an area with 0.75 mg F-/L in the water supply and the other in an area with 1.6 mg F-/L. Fluorosis was assessed using the Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (TFI) and the dental caries were assessed with the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. The region groundwater was extracted from an inter-granular aquifer consisting of volcano clasts of intermediate volcanic chemical composition. Results: Oral examinations showed that 32.35% of the children had severe forms of fluorosis (TFI ≥ 4) in the community with 1.60 mg F-/L and 7.8% in the 0.75 mg F-/L community (p < 0.0001). DMFT = 0.53 (±1.28) and 0.42 (±0.95) in the community with 1.60 mg F-/L and 0.75 mg F-/L, respectively (p = 0.2259). Conclusions: The increasing extraction of underground water was associated with deeper water flows and higher F- concentration. In the community with high F-concentration, a third of the children showed objectionable levels of fluorosis. Adequate groundwater management actions are required to reduce fluorosis risk.

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G. Varela-González, A. García-Pérez, R. Huizar-Alvarez, M. Irigoyen-Camacho and M. Espinoza-Jaramillo, "Fluorosis and Dental Caries in the Hydrogeological Environments of Southeastern Communities in the State of Morelos, Mexico," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 9, 2013, pp. 994-1001. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.49115.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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