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Fluorosis and Dental Caries in the Hydrogeological Environments of Southeastern Communities in the State of Morelos, Mexico

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DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.49115    3,175 Downloads   4,902 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Objectives: 1) To identify the hydrogeological characteristics and fluoride (F-) concentration in drinking water in the southeast of the state of Morelos, Mexico, and 2) to estimate the association between the prevalence and severity of fluorosis, dental caries, and water F- concentration. Methods: A hydrogeological model was developed to determine the vertical distribution of lithostratigraphic units, rocks’ hydraulic conductivities, and groundwater flow characteristics. A total of 649 schoolchildren from two communities received oral examinations. One community was located in an area with 0.75 mg F-/L in the water supply and the other in an area with 1.6 mg F-/L. Fluorosis was assessed using the Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (TFI) and the dental caries were assessed with the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. The region groundwater was extracted from an inter-granular aquifer consisting of volcano clasts of intermediate volcanic chemical composition. Results: Oral examinations showed that 32.35% of the children had severe forms of fluorosis (TFI ≥ 4) in the community with 1.60 mg F-/L and 7.8% in the 0.75 mg F-/L community (p < 0.0001). DMFT = 0.53 (±1.28) and 0.42 (±0.95) in the community with 1.60 mg F-/L and 0.75 mg F-/L, respectively (p = 0.2259). Conclusions: The increasing extraction of underground water was associated with deeper water flows and higher F- concentration. In the community with high F-concentration, a third of the children showed objectionable levels of fluorosis. Adequate groundwater management actions are required to reduce fluorosis risk.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

G. Varela-González, A. García-Pérez, R. Huizar-Alvarez, M. Irigoyen-Camacho and M. Espinoza-Jaramillo, "Fluorosis and Dental Caries in the Hydrogeological Environments of Southeastern Communities in the State of Morelos, Mexico," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 9, 2013, pp. 994-1001. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.49115.

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