Performance of Structures Exposed to Extreme High Temperature—An Overview


Strength, durability and stability are the main criteria for material selection and design in the construction industry. Consequently, development and enhancement of construction materials is always an active and attractive field for engineers and researchers. Elevated temperature (fire) is a potential threat for any structural buildings that can cause a major damage. Response of construction materials exposed to elevated temperature or fire requires a full study and analysis with lessons learned from previous cases. In this paper, properties of the common construction materials such as concrete, steel and composite structures under high temperature events is presented and discussed. In addition, performance of advanced materials, such as Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and Concrete Filled Tubular (CFT) when exposed to high temperature was discussed. Recommendations from different design codes to increase fire resistance of structures are introduced. Finally, damage assessment of several bridges and buildings found in the literature exposed to fire events is summarized.

Share and Cite:

S. Yehia and G. Kashwani, "Performance of Structures Exposed to Extreme High Temperature—An Overview," Open Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 154-161. doi: 10.4236/ojce.2013.33018.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] C. Castillo and A. J. Durrani, “Effect of Transient High Temperature on High-Strength Concrete,” ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 87, No 1, 1990, pp. 47-53.
[2] L. T. Phan, “Pore Pressure in High Strength Concrete at High Temperature,” Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Construction Materials: Performance, Innovations and Structural Implications, Vancouver, 2005.
[3] “Fire Safety of Concrete Buildings,” Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia, 2010.
[4] V. Kodur, “Fire Performance of High-Strength Concrete Structural Members,” Institute for Research in Construction, Ottawa, 1999.
[5] D. R. Flynn, “Response of High Performance Concrete to Fire Conditions: Review of Thermal Property Data and Measurement,” Techniques Report NIST GCR 99-767.
[6] E. Ashley, “Fire Resistance of Concrete Structure,” Na tional Ready Mixed Concrete Association, 2007, pp. 67 70.
[7] J. A. Purkiss, “Fire Safety Engineering Design of Struc tures,” Butterworth-Heinemann, Jordon Hill, Oxford, 1996.
[8] D. N. Bilow and M. R. Kamara, “Fire and Concrete Struc tures,” Structures 2008: Crossing Borders, ASCE 2008.
[9] J. P. Rodrigues, L. Laím and A. M. Correia, “Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Columns in Fire,” Composite Structures, Vol. 92, No. 5, 2010, pp. 1263-1268. doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2009.10.029
[10] T. Kasper, C. Edvardsen, G. Wittneben and D. Neumann, “Lining Design for the District Heating Tunnel in Co penhagen with Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Seg ments,” Tunneling and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 23, No. 5, 2008, pp. 574-587. doi:10.1016/j.tust.2007.11.001
[11] S. Somayaji, “Civil Engineering Materials,” 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2001.
[12] R. G. Zalosh, “Industrial Fire Protection Engineering,” Wiley, Hoboken, 2003.
[13] R. H. Haddad, R. J. Al-Saleh and N. M. Al-Akhras, “Ef fect of Elevated Temperature on Bond between Steel Re inforcement and Fiber Reinforced Concrete,” Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 43, No. 5, 2008. pp. 334-343. doi:10.1016/j.firesaf.2007.11.002
[14] Eurocode 2, “Design of Concrete Structures: Part 1.2: General Rules—Structural Fire Design,” European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, BS EN 1992-1-2, 2004.
[15] A. Y. Elghazouli, B. A. Izzuddin and K. A. Cashell, “Ex perimental Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Steel Reinforcement at Elevated Temperature,” Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 44, No. 6, 2009, pp. 909-919. doi:10.1016/j.firesaf.2009.05.004
[16] J. P. Rodrigues, L. Laím and A. M. Correia, “Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Columns in Fire,” Composite Structures, Vol. 92, No. 5, 2010. pp. 1263-1268. doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2009.10.029
[17] N. D. Kankanamge and M. Mahendran, “Mechanical Pro perties of Cold-Formed Steels at Elevated Temperatures,” Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2011. pp. 26-44.
[18] J. H. Lee, M. Mahendran and P. Makelainen, “Prediction of Mechanical Properties of Light Gauge Steels at Ele vated Temperatures,” Journal of Constructional Steel Re search, Vol. 59, No. 12, 2003, pp. 1517-1532. doi:10.1016/S0143-974X(03)00087-7
[19] J. Chen and B. Young, “Experimental Investigation of Cold-Formed Steel Material at Elevated Temperature,” Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 45, No. 1, 2007, pp. 96-110.
[20] Y. C. Wang, P. M. H. Wong and V. Kodur, “An Experi mental Study of the Mechanical Properties of Fiber Rein forced Polymer (FRP) and Steel Reinforcing Bars at Ele vated Temperatures,” Composite Structures, Vol. 80, No. 1, 2007, pp. 131-140. doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2006.04.069
[21] A. Abbasi and P. Hogg, “Temperature and Environmental Effects on Glass Fiber Rebar: Modulus, Strength and In terfacial Bond Strength with Concrete,” Composites: Part B, Vol. 36, No. 5, 2005, pp. 394-404. doi:10.1016/j.compositesb.2005.01.006
[22] A. Espinos, L. Gardner, M. L. Romero and A. Hospitaler, “Fire Behavior of Concrete Filled Elliptical Steel Col umns,” Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 49, No. 2, 2011, pp. 239-255.
[23] M. Yu, X. Zha, J. Ye and Y. Li, “Fire Responses and Resistance of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Frame Struc tures,” International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2009, pp. 253-271.
[24] V. Moliner, A. Espinos, M. Romero and A. Hospitaler, “Fire Behavior of Eccentrically Loaded Slender High Strength Concrete-Filled Tubular Columns,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 83, 2013, pp. 137 146. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2013.01.011
[25] Q.-H. Tan, L.-H. Han and H.-X. Yu, “Fire Performance of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular (CFST) Column to RC Beam Joints,” Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 51, 2012, pp. 68 84. doi:10.1016/j.firesaf.2012.03.002
[26] A. Espinos, M. L. Romero and A. Hospitaler, “Advanced Model for Predicting the Fire Response of Concrete Filled Tubular Columns,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 66, No. 8-9, 2010, pp. 1030-1046. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2010.03.002
[27] Z. Ma and P. Makelainen, “Behaviour of Composite Slim Floor Structures in Fire,” Journal of Structural Engineer ing, Vol. 126, No. 7, 2000, pp. 830-837. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2000)126:7(830)
[28] Z. Huang, I. W. Burgess and R. J. Plank, “The Influence of Shear Connectors on the Behavior of Composite Steel Framed Buildings in Fire,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 51, No. 3, 1999, pp. 219-237. doi:10.1016/S0143-974X(99)00028-0
[29] F. Wald, L. Simoes da Silva, D. Moorec, T. Lennon, M. Chladna, A. Santiago, M. Benes and L. Borges, “Experi mental Behavior of a Steel Structure under Natural Fire,” Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 41, 2006, pp. 509-522. doi:10.1016/j.firesaf.2006.05.006
[30] T. Hozjan, M. Saje, I. Planinc, S. Srpcic and S. Bratina, “Behavior of a Composite Concrete Trapezoidal Steel Plate Slab in Fire,” Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 2010.
[31] L. C. Leston-Jones, “The Influence of Semi-Rigid Con nections on the Performance of Steel Framed Structures in Fire,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Sheffield, 1997.
[32] ACI 216.1-07/TMS-0216-07, “Code Requirements for Determining Fire Resistance of Concrete and Masonry Construction Assemblies,” American Concrete Institute, 2007.
[33] K. D. Hertz and L. S. Sorensen, “Test Method for Spall ing of Fire Exposed Concrete,” Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2003, pp. 466-476. doi:10.1016/j.firesaf.2005.04.001
[34] K. Yang, H. Lee and O. Chan, “Experimental Study of Fire-Resistant Steel H-Columns at Elevated Tempera ture,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 62, No. 6, 2006, pp. 544-553.
[35] A. S. Usmani, J. M. Rotter, S. Lamont, A. M. Sanad and M. Gillie, “Fundamental Principles of Structural Behavior under Thermal Effects,” Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 36, No. 8, 2001, pp. 721-744.
[36] A. M. Sanad, J. M. Rotter, A. S. Usmani and M. A. Con nor, “Composite Beams in Large Buildings under Fire— Numerical Modeling and Structural Behavior,” Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2000, pp. 165-188. doi:10.1016/S0379-7112(00)00034-5
[37] International Code Council, “2009 International Building Code (IBC 2009),” Country Club Hills, 2009.
[38] ACI/TMS Standard, “Code Requirements for Determin ing Fire Resistance of Concrete and Masonry Construc tion Assemblies (ACI 216.1-07/TMS-0216-07),” Ameri can Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, 2007.
[39] American Society of Civil Engineers, “Standard Calcula tion Methods for Structural Fire Protection (ASCE/SEI/ SFPE 29-05),” Reston, 2007.
[40] ASTM E119-10b, “Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials,” ASTM Interna tional, West Conshohocken, 2003.
[41] L. R. Taerwe, “Fire Design of Concrete Structures Ac cording to the Eurocodes: A Review,” ACI SP-255-4, 2008.
[42] L. Twilt, “The New Eurocode on Fire Design of Steel Structures,” The International Seminar on Steel Struc tures in Fire, Shanghai, 1-3 November 2001.
[43], 2011.
[44] ENV 1993-1-2, “Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures,” Part 1-2: General Rules, Structural Fire Design, CEN, 2006.
[45] EN1994-1-2, “Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures,” 2005.
[46] C. Gutiérrez-Montesa, E. Sanmiguel-Rojasa, A. S. Kai serb and A. Viedmab, “Numerical Model and Validation Experiments of Atrium Enclosure Fire in a New Fire Test Facility,” Building and Environment, Vol. 43, No. 11, 2008, pp. 1912-1928. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2007.11.010
[47] V. K. R. Kodur and M. Dwaikat, “A Numerical Model for Predicting the Fire Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Beams,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2008, pp. 431-443.
[48] M. B. Dwaikat and V. K. R. Kodur, “A Numerical Ap proach for Modeling the Fire Induced Restraint Effects in Reinforced Concrete Beams,” Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 43, No. 11, 2008, pp. 291-307. doi:10.1016/j.firesaf.2007.08.003
[49] V. K. R. Kodur and N. K. Raut, “Fire Resistance of Rein forced Concrete Columns—State-of-the-Art and Research Needs,” ACI SP-255-4, 2008.
[50] H. M. Ali, P. E. Senseny and R. L. Alpert, “Lateral Dis placement and Collapse of Single-Story Steel Frames in Uncontrolled Fire,” Engineering Structures, Vol. 26, No. 5, 2004, pp. 593-607. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2003.12.007
[51] A. Y. Elghazouli and B. A. Izzuddin, “Analytical Assess ment of the Structural Performance of Composite Floors Subject to Compartment Fires,” Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 36, No. 8, 2001, pp. 769-793. doi:10.1016/S0379-7112(01)00039-X
[52] G. P. Mallett, “State-of-the-Art Review-Repair of Con crete Bridges,” Thomas Telford, London, 1994.
[53] J. J. Beitiel and N. R. Iwankiw, “Historical Survey of Multi-Story Building Collapses Due to Fire,” FPE 3rd Quarter, 2005.
[54] L. Giuliani, C. Crosti and F. Gentili, “Vulnerability of Bridges to Fire,” Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Manage ment, Stresa, 8-12 July 2012.
[55] J. Scheer, “Failed Bridges Case Studies and Consequen ces,” Ernts & Sohn, Berlin, 2010.

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.