Quantum Entanglement: Where Dark Energy and Negative Gravity plus Accelerated Expansion of the Universe Comes from ()

Mohamed S. El Naschie

Department of Physics, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

**DOI: **10.4236/jqis.2013.32011
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Department of Physics, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Dark
energy is shown to be the absolute value of the negative kinetic energy of the
halo-like quantum wave modeled mathematically by the empty set in a five
dimensional Kaluza-Klein (K-K) spacetime. Ordinary or position energy of the
particle on the other hand is the dual of dark energy and is contained in the
dynamic of the quantum particle modeled
by the zero set in the same five dimensional K-K spacetime. The sum of both
dark energy of the wave and the ordinary
energy of the particle is exactly equal to the energy given by the well known
formula of Einstein *E=mc*^{2 }which is set in a four
dimensional spacetime. Various interpretations of the results are presented and
discussed based on the three fundamental energy density equations developed. In
particular where *E* is the energy, *m* is the
mass and *c* is the speed of light, is Hardy’s quantum entanglement and gives results in
complete agreement with the cosmological measurements of WMAP and Supernova. On
the other hand gives an intuitive explanation of
negative gravity and the observed increased rate of cosmic expansion. Adding *E *(ordinary) to *E *(dark) one finds which as we mentioned
above is Einstein’s famous relativity formula. We conclude that similar to the
fact that the quantum wave interpreted generally as probability wave which is
devoid of ordinary energy decides upon the location of a quantum particle, it
also exerts a negative gravity effect on the cosmic scale of our clopen, *i.e.* closed and open universe. Analysis and conclusions are framed in a reader friendly
manner in **Figures 1-14** with detailed
commentary.

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Naschie, M. (2013) Quantum Entanglement: Where Dark Energy and Negative Gravity plus Accelerated Expansion of the Universe Comes from. *Journal of Quantum Information Science*, **3**, 57-77. doi: 10.4236/jqis.2013.32011.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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