Quantum Entanglement: Where Dark Energy and Negative Gravity plus Accelerated Expansion of the Universe Comes from ()

Mohamed S. El Naschie

Department of Physics, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

**DOI: **10.4236/jqis.2013.32011
PDF
HTML XML
8,536
Downloads
13,556
Views
Citations

Department of Physics, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Dark
energy is shown to be the absolute value of the negative kinetic energy of the
halo-like quantum wave modeled mathematically by the empty set in a five
dimensional Kaluza-Klein (K-K) spacetime. Ordinary or position energy of the
particle on the other hand is the dual of dark energy and is contained in the
dynamic of the quantum particle modeled
by the zero set in the same five dimensional K-K spacetime. The sum of both
dark energy of the wave and the ordinary
energy of the particle is exactly equal to the energy given by the well known
formula of Einstein *E=mc*^{2 }which is set in a four
dimensional spacetime. Various interpretations of the results are presented and
discussed based on the three fundamental energy density equations developed. In
particular where *E* is the energy, *m* is the
mass and *c* is the speed of light, is Hardy’s quantum entanglement and gives results in
complete agreement with the cosmological measurements of WMAP and Supernova. On
the other hand gives an intuitive explanation of
negative gravity and the observed increased rate of cosmic expansion. Adding *E *(ordinary) to *E *(dark) one finds which as we mentioned
above is Einstein’s famous relativity formula. We conclude that similar to the
fact that the quantum wave interpreted generally as probability wave which is
devoid of ordinary energy decides upon the location of a quantum particle, it
also exerts a negative gravity effect on the cosmic scale of our clopen, *i.e.* closed and open universe. Analysis and conclusions are framed in a reader friendly
manner in **Figures 1-14** with detailed
commentary.

Share and Cite:

Naschie, M. (2013) Quantum Entanglement: Where Dark Energy and Negative Gravity plus Accelerated Expansion of the Universe Comes from. *Journal of Quantum Information Science*, **3**, 57-77. doi: 10.4236/jqis.2013.32011.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

[1] | S. Nakajma, et al., “Foundation of Quantum Mechanics in the Light of New Technology,” World scientific, Singapore, 1996. |

[2] | R. Penrose, “The Road to Reality,” Jonathan Cape, London, 2004. |

[3] | D. R. Finkelstein, “Quantum Relativity,” Springer, Berlin, 1996. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-60936-7 |

[4] | M. Duff, “The World in Eleven Dimensions,” IOP Publishing, Bristol, 1999. |

[5] | J. Mageuijo and L. Smolin, “Lorentz Invariance with an Invariant Energy Scale,” Cornell University Library, Ithaca, 2001. |

[6] | J. Polchinski, “String Theory. Vol. I and II,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999. |

[7] | C. Rovelli, “Quantum Gravity,” Cambridge Press, Cambridge, 2004. |

[8] | J.-H. He and M. S. El Naschie, “On the Monadic Nature of Quantum Gravity as Highly Structured Golden Ring Spaces and Spectra,” Fractal Spacetime and Noncommutative Geometry in Quantum and High Energy Physics, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2012, pp. 94-98. |

[9] | E. J. Copeland, M. Sami and S. Tsujikawa, “Dynamics of Dark Energy,” Cornell University Library, Ithaca, 2006. |

[10] | L. Amendola and S. Tsujikawa, “Dark Energy Theory and Observations,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511750823 |

[11] | S. Perlmutter, et al. (Supernova Cosmology Project Collaboration), “Measurements of Omega and Lambda from 42 High-Redshift Supernova,” The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 517, No. 2, 1999, pp. 565-585. doi:10.1086/307221 |

[12] | M. S. El Naschie and L. Marek-Crnjac, “Deriving the Exact Percentage of Dark Energy Using a Transfinite Version of Nottale’s Scale Relativity,” International Journal Of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Applications, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2012, pp. 118-124. |

[13] | Y. Baryshev and P. Teerikorpi, “Discovery of Cosmic Fractals,” World Scientific, Singapore, 2002. |

[14] | L. Nottale, “Scale Relativity,” Imperial College Press, London, 2011. |

[15] | Planck-Spacecraft.Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planck. 15/09/2012. 2012. |

[16] | R. Panek, “Dark Energy: The Biggest Mystery in the Universe,” The Smithsonian Magazine. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/Dark-Energy-The-Biggest-Mystery-in-the-Universe.html |

[17] | M. S. El Naschie, “Revising Einstein’s E = mc2. A Theoretical resolution of the mystery of dark energy,” Conference Program and Abstracts of the Fourth Arab International Conference in Physics and Material Sciences, Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Alexandria, 2012, p. 1. |

[18] | J.-H. He, “A Historical Scientific Finding on Dark Energy by M. S. El Naschie,” International Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics, Suzhou & Shanghai, 27-30 October 2012. See also the Journal Fractal Spacetime and NonCommutatitve Geometry in Quantum and High Energy Physics, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2012, p. 154. |

[19] | M. S. El Naschie, L. Marek-Crnjac and J.-H. He, “On the Mathematical Philosophy of Being and Nothingness in Quantum Physics,” Fractal Spacetime and Noncommutative Geometry in Quantum and High Energy Physics, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2012, pp. 103-106. |

[20] | M. S. El Naschie, J.-H. He, S. I. Nada, L. Crnjac and M. A. Helal, “Golden Mean Computer for High Energy Physics,” Fractal Spacetime and Noncommutative Geometry in Quantum and High Energy Physics, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2012, pp. 80-93. |

[21] | M. S. El Naschie, “Elementary Prerequisites for E-Infinity (Recommended Background Readings in Nonlinear Dynamics, Geometry and Topology),” Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2006, pp. 579-605. doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2006.03.030 |

[22] | M. S. El Naschie, “A Review of E-Infinity and the Mass Spectrum of High Energy Particle Physics,” Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2004, pp. 209-236. doi:10.1016/S0960-0779(03)00278-9 |

[23] | M. S. El Naschie, M. A. Helal, L. M. Crnjac and J.-H. He, “Transfinite Corrections as a Hardy Type Quantum Entanglement,” Fractal Spacetime and Noncommutative Geometry in Quantum and High Energy Physics, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2012, pp. 99-102. |

[24] | W. Rindler, “Relativity, Special, General and Cosmological,” Oxford Press, Oxford, 2004. |

[25] | J.-P. Hsu and L. Hsu, “A Broad View of Relativity,” World Scientific, Singapore, 2006. |

[26] | J. Mageuijo, “Faster Than the Speed of Light,” William Heinemann, London, 2003. |

[27] | H. Saller, “Operational Quantum Theory, Vol. I & II,” Springer, Berlin, 2006. |

[28] | L. Sigalotti and A. Mejias, “The Golden Mean in Special Relativity,” Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2006, pp. 521-524. doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2006.03.005 |

[29] | S. Hendi and M. S. Zadeh, “Special Relativity and the Golden Mean,” Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 1, 2012, pp. 37-45. |

[30] | M. S. El Naschie, “On a Class of Fuzzy Kähler-Like Manifolds,” Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2005, pp. 257-261. doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2004.12.024 |

[31] | J.-H. He, et al., “Quantum Golden Mean Entanglement Test as the Signature of the Fractality of Micro Spacetime,” Nonlinear Science Letters B, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2011, pp. 45-50. |

[32] | M. S. El Naschie, “Quantum Entanglement as a Consequence of a Cantorian Micro Spacetime Geometry,” Journal of Quantum Information Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2011, pp. 50-53. http://www.scirp.org/journal/jqis/ |

[33] | M. S. El Naschie, “The Theory of Cantorian Spacetime and High Energy Particle Physics (An Informal Review),” Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Vol. 41, No. 5, 2009, pp. 2635-2646. doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2008.09.059 |

[34] | M. S. El Naschie, “The Discrete Charm of Certain Eleven Dimensional Spacetime Theory,” International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation, Vol. 7, No. 4, 2006, pp. 477-481. |

[35] | D. Horrocks and W. Johnson, “On Anticlastic Curvature with Special Reference to Plastic Bending,” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 12, 1967, pp. 835-844. |

[36] | M. S. El Naschie, “Stress, Stability and Chaos in Structural Engineering,” McGraw Hill, London, 1990. |

[37] | W. Koiter, “Elastic Stability and Post Buckling Behaviour in Nonlinear Problems,” University of Wisconsin Press, Maidison, 1963. |

[38] | M. S. El Naschie, “Kaluza-Klein Unification Same Possible Extinctions,” Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Vol. 37, 2008, pp. 16-22. |

[39] | M. S. El Naschie, “On Dualities between NordstromKaluza-Klein, Newtonian and Quantum Gravity,” Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Vol. 36, 2009, pp. 808-810. |

[40] | M. S. El Naschie, “Gödel Universe, Dualities and High Energy Particles in E-Infinity,” Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2005, pp. 759-764. doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2004.12.010 |

[41] | J. Aron, “Cloud of Atoms Goes beyond Absolute Zero,” New Scientist, Vol. 217, No. 2899, 2013, p. 12. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(13)60081-0 |

[42] | P. Halpern, “The Great beyond, Higher Dimensions, Parallel Universes and the Extra Ordinary Search for a Theory of Everything,” John Wiley, New Jersey, 2004. |

[43] | M. S. El Naschie, “A Tale of Two Klein’s Unified in Strings and E-Infinity Theory,” Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2005, pp. 247-254. doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2005.01.016 |

[44] | A. Connes, “Alain Connes Noncommutative Geometry,” Academic Press, New York, 1994, see in Particular pp. 88-93. |

Journals Menu

Contact us

customer@scirp.org | |

+86 18163351462(WhatsApp) | |

1655362766 | |

Paper Publishing WeChat |

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.