Homeostatic cell cycle and the origin of autophagosomal vesicles

DOI: 10.4236/abc.2013.33031   PDF   HTML   XML   3,121 Downloads   5,095 Views   Citations


The autophagosomes were identified in the viable cycloheximide (CHX)-treated cells which had an incapacitated translational process and thus disabled synthesis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vesicular transporters. They were found devoid of the proteins transported from ER to cell organelles, were unable to fuse with ER, Golgi or mitochondria, and displayed affinity with lysosomes. The analysis of autophagosomes, derived from the CHX cell organelles, revealed that their lipid composition resemble that of the maternal organelle. Thus, the ER-derived autophagosomes were marked with the presence of phosphatidylinositol (PI), Golgi-derived vesicles contained sphingomyelin (SM) and glycosphingolipids (GLL), and the mitochondria-derived autophagosomes contained phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipin (CL). The incubation of the vesicles with intact lysosomes afforded their and the lysosome membrane lipids degradation. The analysis of the products derived from incubation of lysosomes and autophagosomes with radiolabeled SM, in the presence and the absence of TritonX100, allowed us to conclude that during autophagosome degradation the lysosomal enzymes are not released to cytosol, and that only lysosomes contain the enzymes degrading membrane lipids. In summary, our findings allowed us to authenticate the vesicles generated in the CHX-treated cells as organelle-specific autophagosomes and to determine that complete cycle of cell restitution and debridement includes intralysosomal degradation of the lysosomal membrane engulfing the autophagosomes vesicles.

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Slomiany, A. and Slomiany, B. (2013) Homeostatic cell cycle and the origin of autophagosomal vesicles. Advances in Biological Chemistry, 3, 275-287. doi: 10.4236/abc.2013.33031.

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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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