Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Bacteria Isolated from Patients of Urinary Tract Infections in Iraq


Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the bacterial infections of urinary tract in patients with urolithiasis. The patients were referred to and/or visiting the Urology Department in Tikrit Teaching Hospital in Tikrit city. Methods: The present study was carried out from November 2011 until July 2012. One hundred and sixty patients with urolithiasis were included in the present study whose ages ranged from 12 to 70 years. Male to female ratio was almost 2:1. The control group consisted of two groups; group one consisted of 40 persons (20 males and 20 females) who were selected randomly from Tikrit city during the period of this study and they had no previous personal nor family history of urolithiasis, while group two consist of 40 persons (20 males and 20 females) infected with urinary tract infection. Urine culture was done for all the patients and the control group. Results: Forty five percent (45/160) of these had UTI’s. Six patients revealed mixed bacterial growth. Eighty-four percent (38/45) of patients with UTI were infected with gram negative organisms where as only 16% (7/45) of patients were infected with gram positive organisms. The majority of the gram negative bacteria isolated belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae particularly E. coli as it was isolated from 14 (31%) cases. The urease producing bacteria were isolated from 31 cases (50%). Conclusions: UTI’s in urolithiasis was more frequent in females than males and the percentages were 28/45 and 17/45 respectively. The most effective antimicrobial agent was amikacin and the least effective one was ampicillin, whereas ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin, levofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, amoxycillin and gentamicin were effective at different levels.

Share and Cite:

M. Al-Jebouri and S. Mdish, "Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Bacteria Isolated from Patients of Urinary Tract Infections in Iraq," Open Journal of Urology, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2013, pp. 124-131. doi: 10.4236/oju.2013.32024.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. M. A. Jebouri and N. Atala, “A Study on the Interrelationship between Renal Calculi, Hormonal Abnormalities and Urinary Tract Infections in Iraqi Patients,” Open Journal of Urology, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012, pp. 6-10. doi:10.4236/oju.2012.21002
[2] K. A. Gupta, “Increasing Antibiomicrobial Resistance and the Management of Uncomplicated CommunityAcquired Urinary Tract Infections,” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Vol. 135, No. 2, 2001, pp. 41-50.
[3] R. A. Jones, H. I. Inabo and H. B. I. Obanibi, “Antimicrobial Suseptibilityof Some Urinary Tract Clinical Isolatesto Commonly Used Antibiotics,” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2006, pp. 973-978.
[4] N. W. El-Sweih, W. Jamal and V. O. Rotimi, “Spectrum and Antibiotic Resistance of Uropathogens Isolated from Hospital and Community Patients with Urinary Tract Infections in Two Large Hospitals in Kuwait,” Medical Principles and Practice, Vol. 14, No. 6, 2008, pp. 401-407. doi:10.1159/00 0088113
[5] A. S. Kolawale, O. M. Kolawale, Y. T. Kandaki-Olukemi, et al., “Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infections among Patients Attending Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria,” International Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 5, 2009, pp. 163-167.
[6] H. Hvidberg, C. Struve, K. A. Krogfelt, et al., “Development of a Long-Term Ascending Urinary Tract Infection Mouse Model for Antibiotic Treatment Studies,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 44, No. 1, 2000, pp. 156-163. doi:10.1128/AAC.44.1.156-163.2000
[7] P. W. Baker, P. Coyle, R. Bais, et al., “Influence of Season, Age and Sex on Renal Stone Formation in South Australia,” Medical Journal of Australia, Vol. 156, No. 4, 1993, pp. 390-392.
[8] B. A. Forbes, D. F. Sahm, A. S. Weissfeld, et al., “Baily and Scott Diagnostic Microbiology,” 12th Edition, Mosby Elsevier, Philadeliphia, 2007, pp. 93-107,187-197,842-854.
[9] J. W. Sutherland, J. H. Parks and F. L. Coe, “Recurrence after a Single Renal Stone in a Community Practice,” Miner Electr1985, Metab11, 1985, pp. 267-269.
[10] H. Alpay, A. O. GokceI and N. Biyikli, “Clinical and Metabolic Features of Urolithiasis and Microlithiasis in Children,” Pediatric Nephrolology, Vol. 24, No. 11, 2009, pp. 2203-2209. doi:10.1007/s00467-009-1231-9
[11] O. A. H. Al-Jebouri, “The Relationship between Urinary Caliculi Types and Urinary Tract Infections among Patients in Tikrit District,” M. Sc. Thesis, College of Medicine, Tikrit University, Tikrit, 2006.
[12] M. M. Al-Jebouri and A. H. Hasen, “Vitamin D3 Variation between Children and Adults with Reference to Renal Stones, Environment and Urinary Tract Infections,” Open Journal of Urolology, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2012, pp. 119-126.
[13] S. Manikandan, S. Ganesapandian, M. Singh, et al., “Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Urinary Tract Infection Causing Human Pathogenic Bacteria,” Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2011, pp. 56-60.
[14] S. K. Al-Rawi, “UTIs in Diabetic Pregnant Women,” M. Sc. Thesis, College of Medicine/Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, 1998.
[15] T. Al-Naas, S. Al-Uqaily and B. Othman, “Urinary Calculi: Bacteriological and Chemical Association,” Easter Mediterranean.
[16] J. S. AL-Bedri, “Urinary Tract Infections in the Medical City Teaching Hospital,” Diploma Dissertation, Collage of Medicine/Baghdad University, Baghdad, 1987.
[17] M. M. Al-Jebouri, “The Effect of Sublethal Concentrations of Disinfectants on Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus,” Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1989, pp. 14-19.
[18] E. E. Akortha and O. K. Ibadin, “Incidence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Staphylococcus Aureus amongist Patients with Urinary Tract Infection(UTI) in UBTH Benin City, Nigeria,” African Journal of Biotechnolology, Vol. 7, No. 11, 2008, pp. 1637-1640.
[19] T. M. Hooton, “Fluoroquinolones and Resistance in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection. International Journal of American Medicine Association,” Vol. 22, No. 1, 2003, pp. S65-S72.
[20] P. Nwanze, L. M. Nwara, S. Oranusi, et al., “Urinary Tract Infection in Okada Village: Prevalence and Antimicrobial Pattern,” Science of Research Essays, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2007, pp. 112-116.
[21] O. A. H. Al-Jebouri, “The Relationship between Urinary Caliculi Types and Urinary Tract Infections among Patients in Tikrit District,” M. Sc. Thesis, University of Tikrit, Tikrit, 2006.

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.