Rationalizing the Use of Water in Industry—Part 1: Summary of the Instruments Developed by the Clean Technology Network in the State of Bahia and Main Results Obtained


Based on cleaner production concepts, a method for water use minimization has been developed by the Clean Technology Network of Bahia (TECLIM) at one of the largest industrial complexes in Latin America located in the State of Bahia, Brazil. This method is concerned with an area of secondary interest to the productive sector: the use of water. Based on the best cleaner production principles (CP), nine instruments have been developed during cooperative projects with chemical, petrochemical and copper metallurgical industries. These instruments are described in Part 2 of this paper [1]. The main benefits derived from partnership schemes include: a reduction in water consumption and effluent generation; the development of a techno-operational culture to increase eco-efficiency; and the introduction of conceptual projects to ensure the continuity of the activities in the company after the projects have been completed. The specific consumption of water was reduced by 20% as a consequence of the application of this method in Company A; a specific reduction in the generation of effluents of more than 40% was observed in Company B; a 42% fall in fresh water consumption in Company C; and a 20% decrease in the cost of effluent treatment in Company D. Among the difficulties encountered were the limited time availability of the operators and engineers for the project, the lack of measurement and calibration of available flow meters and the lack of detailed technical data.

Share and Cite:

A. Kiperstok, K. Esquerre, R. Kalid, E. Sales and G. Oliveira, "Rationalizing the Use of Water in Industry—Part 1: Summary of the Instruments Developed by the Clean Technology Network in the State of Bahia and Main Results Obtained," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 5, 2013, pp. 486-496. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.45057.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] A. Kiperstok, K. P. Oliveira-Esquerre, R. Kalid, E. Sales and G. Oliveira, “Rationalizing the use of water in Industry—Part 2: Instruments Developed by the Clean Technology Network in the State of Bahia,” Journal of Environmental Protection, in Press.
[2] A. Kiperstok, G. L. Oliveira, K. P. Oliveira-Esquerre and R. Kalid, “Conservation of Water Resources in Semi-Arid Region Compared to Industrial Development,” In: S. S. Medeiros, H. R. Gheyi, C. O. Galvao and V. P. S. Paz Eds., Hydric Resources in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions, National Institute of Semiarid, Campina Grande, 2011, pp. 207-247.
[3] OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development), “The Water Challenge: OECD’s Response,” 2010. http://www.oecd.org/document/47/0,3343,en_2649_34285_36146415_1_1_1_1,00.html
[4] WBCSD (World Business Council for Sustainable Development and IUCN)—International Union for Conservation of Nature, “Water for Business: Initiatives Guiding Sustainable Water Management in the Private Sector, Version 2, March 2010,” 2011. http://www.wbcsd.org/waterforbusiness3.aspx
[5] ANA (National Agency of Water) and CEBDS (Brazilian Council for Sustainable Development), “Fact and Trends. National Agency of Water, Brasília, ANA,” 2010. http://www.ana.gov.br/bibliotecavirtual/arquivos/20070302094757_%C3%81gua,%20fatos%20e%20tend%C3%AAncias.pdf
[6] WBCSD (World Business Council for Sustainable Development), 2010. http://www.wbcsd.org/templates/TemplateWBCSD1/layout.asp?type=p&MenuId=MTU1&doOpen=1&ClickMenu=LeftMenu)
[7] N. Tambo, “Urban Methabolic System of Water in the 21st Century,” Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo, 2003.
[8] T. E. Graedel and B. R. Allenby, “Industrial Ecology,” Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1995.
[9] A. Kiperstok, A. H. Tanimoto, D. Fontana, E. H. B. C. Silva, J. Mendonca, L. P. Lacerda, L. Pustilnik, L. F. Cardoso, R. Kalid and A. Teixeira, “The Fundamental Principles of Clean Production. Silver House: Introducing Clean Production in Bahia,” Clean Technology Network of Bahia (TECLIM), University of Bahia (UFBA), Bahia, 2008.
[10] S. Deul, “Systematic Approach to Water Resource Management in Industry,” In: P. Lens, Ed., Water Recycling and Resource Recovery in Industry: Analysis, Technologies and Implementation, IWA Publishing, Netherlands, 2002, pp. 252-270.
[11] R. M. Rosain, “Reusing Water in CPI Plants,” Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 89, No. 4, 1993, pp. 28-35.
[12] R. Smith and E. Petela, “Water Minimisation in the Process Industries. Parts 5: Utility Waste,” The Chemical Engineer, Vol. 523, Part 5, 1992, pp. 32-35.
[13] Z. L. Zver and P. Glavic, “Water Minimization in Process Industries: Case Study in Beet Sugar Plant,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 43, No. 2, 2005, pp. 133-114. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2004.04.014
[14] J. C. Jabbour, E. Maria da Silva, E. L. Paiva and F. C. A. Santos, “Environmental Management in Brazil: Is It a Competitive Priority?” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2012, pp. 11-22.
[15] J. L. R. Bravo and A. Kiperstok, “Studies on Water Conservation at a Primary Copper Metallurgy,” European Metallurgical Conference, Dresden.
[16] D. Fontana, R. Kalid, A. Kiperstok and M. A. S. Silva, “Methodology for Wastewater Minimization in Industries in the Petrochemical Complex,” Proceedings of the 2nd Mercosur Congress on Chemical Engineering and 4th Mercosur Congress on Process Systems Engineering, Rio de Janeiro, 14-18 August 2005.
[17] A. Kiperstok, M. Silva, R. A. Kalid, E. A. Sales, J. G. A. Pacheco Filho, G. Oliveira, C. P. L. Galvao and D. Fontana, “A National Policy for the Environment Focused on CP: Areas for Discussion,” Bahia Analysis and Data, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2001, pp. 326-332.
[18] A. Kiperstok, S. Agra Filho, J. C. S. Andrade, E. Figueiroa and D. P. Costa, “Innovation and the Environment: Features for Sustainable Development in Bahia,” Environmental Resources Center, Salvador, 2003.
[19] A. Kiperstok, R. Kalid and E. Sales, “Development of Water and Wastewater Minimization Tools for the Process Industry: The Experience of the Clean Technology Network of Bahia,” Proceedings of the Global Conference on Sustainable Product Development and Life Cycle Engineering, 3-6 October 2006, Vol. 4, Sao Carlos.
[20] K. P. Oliveira-Esquerre, A. Kiperstok, E. Cohim, R. Kalid, E. A. Sales and V. M. Pires, “Taking Advantage of Storm and Waste Water Retention Basins as Part of Water Use Minimization in Industrial Sites,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2011, pp. 316-324. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2010.10.004
[21] R. A. Luken and J. Navratil, “A Programmatic Review of UNIDO/UNEP National Cleaner Production Centers,” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2004, pp. 195-205. doi:10.1016/S0959-6526(03)00102-1
[22] UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), “Understanding Cleaner Production,” 2008. http://www.unep.fr/shared/publications/other/WEBx0072xPA/manual_cdrom/Guidance%20Manual/PDF%20versions/Part1.pdf
[23] M. D. LaGrega, P. L. Buckingham and J. C. Evans, “The Environmental Resources Management Group: Hazardous Waste Management,” McGraw-Hill, Singapore City, 1994.
[24] L. F. M. Nascimento and A. Kiperstok, “Two New Innovative Environmental Academic Programs in Brazil,” WRI 2003 Bell Conference Ecosystems and Environment Perspective on Education for Sustainable Business, Fort Lauderdale, 17-19 July 2003, pp. 1-10. www.wri.org
[25] A. Kiperstok, “Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices with the Support of a Diploma Course,” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2000, pp. 375-379. doi:10.1016/S0959-6526(00)00040-8
[26] T. K. Zhelev, “Water Conservation through Energy Management,” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 13, No. 15, 2005, pp. 1395-1404. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2005.04.007
[27] Metcalf and Eddy, “Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse,” 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003.
[28] J. Féres, A. Reynaudb, A. Thomas and R. S. Motta, “Competitiveness and Effectiveness Concerns in Water Charge Implementation: A Case Study of the Paraíba do Sul River Basin,” Water Policy, Vol. 10, No. 6, 2008, pp. 595-612. doi:10.2166/wp.2008.103
[29] G. Gwehenberger and M. Narodoslawsky, “Sustainable processes—The Challenge of the 21st Century for Chemical Engineering,” Process Safety and Environment Protection, Vol. 86, No. 5, 2008, pp. 321-327. doi:10.1016/j.psep.2008.03.004
[30] M. E. Goldblatt, K. S. Eble and J. E. Feathers, “Zero Dis-Charge: What, Why and How,” Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 89, No. 4, 1993, pp. 22-27.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.