Share This Article:

Physical, Biochemical and Biological Characterization of Two Opposite Areas in the Southern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea)

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2607KB) PP. 120-131
DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2013.32013    4,338 Downloads   8,558 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The Drini and ManfredoniaGulfswere investigated in May 2008 and April 2009, respectively. The gulfs are located in the South Eastern (GulfofDrini) and South Western (GulfofManfredonia)Adriatic Sea. The areas are partially influenced by two main Adriatic surface currents: the Eastern Adriatic Current-EAC that flows north-westward along the eastern side, and the Western Adriatic CurrentWAC that flows south-eastward along the western side of the basin. The spatial variations of temperature, salinity, fluorescence, dissolved oxygen concentration, Coloured Dissolved Organic MatterCDOM, nutrients, chlorophyll a and phytoplankton composition parameters in the two areas were observed and compared. CDOM regulates the penetration of UV light into the sea and plays an important role in many hydrological and biogeochemical processes on the sea surface layer including primary productivity. The phytoplankton specific diversity of the Gulf of Manfredonia showed a spring community with dinoflagellates (21 taxa) as the main important fraction, coccolithophorales (6 taxa) and diatoms with 10 identified taxa. The phytoplankton distribution along the eastern coast showed a different biodiversity: a prevalence of dinoflagellates (58 taxa) included harmful microalgae such as Alexandrium, Dinophysis and Lingulodinium genus. Diatoms were less abundant, among them Pseudo-nitzschia was also reported which could include some potentially toxic species. Nanoplankton are ever abundant in offshore waters and an exceptional bloom of cyanobacteria was registered in Buna-Boyana estuary due to strong industrial impact. The gulfs showed similar physical and biochemical characteristics despite the WAC carried out along the westernAdriatic Seathe water rich in nutrients from the major northern Italian rivers. No correlations were found between CDOM and chlorophyll a in the two areas and this implied that, probably, the primary source of CDOM might come from terrestrial input rather than the biological production from phytoplankton. The Gulf of Drini is impacted by the runoff of the Buna-Bojana River that makes this gulf an eutrophic area despite the mostly eastern side of the Adriatic being an oligotrophic basin.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Campanelli, M. Cabrini, F. Grilli, D. Fornasaro, P. Penna, Z. Kljajić and M. Marini, "Physical, Biochemical and Biological Characterization of Two Opposite Areas in the Southern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea)," Open Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2013, pp. 120-131. doi: 10.4236/ojms.2013.32013.

References

[1] A. Artegiani, D. Bregant, E. Paschini, N. Pinardi, F. Raicich and A. Russo, “The Adriatic Sea General Circulation. Part I: Air-Sea Interactions and Water Mass Structure,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 27, No. 8, 1997, pp. 1492-1514. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<1492:TASGCP>2.0.CO;2
[2] B. B. Manca, V. Kovacevic, M. Gacic and D. Viezzoli, “Dense Water Formation in the Southern Adriatic Sea and Spreading into the Ionian Sea in the Period 1997-1999,” Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 33-34, No. 1, 2002, pp. 133154. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(02)00056-8
[3] M. Marini, F. Grilli, A. Guarnieri, B. H. Jones, Z. Klajic, N. Pinardi and M. Sanxhaku, “Is the Southeastern Adriatic Sea Coastal Strip an Eutrophic Area?” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 88, No. 3, 2010, pp. 395-406. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2010.04.020
[4] F. Grilli, M. Marini, D. Degobbis, C. R. Ferrari, P. Fornasiero, A. Russo, M. Gismondi, T. Djakovac, R. Precali and R. Simonetti, “Circulation and Horizontal Fluxes in the Northern Adriatic Sea in the Period June 1999-July 2002. Part II: Nutrients Transport,” Science of the Total Environnement, Vol. 353, No. 1-3, 2005, pp. 115-125. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.09.011
[5] A. Campanelli, F. Grilli, E. Paschini and M. Marini, “The Influence of an Exceptional Po River Flood on the Physical and Chemical Oceanographic Properties of the Adriatic Sea,” Dynamics of Atmosphere and Oceans, Vol. 52, No. 1-2, 2011, pp. 284-297. doi:10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2011.05.004
[6] Y. Z. Yacobi, T. Zohary, N. Kress, A. Hecht, R. D. Robarts, M. Waiser, A. M. Wood and W. K. W. Li, “Chlorophyll Distribution throughout the Southeastern Mediterranean in Relation to the Physical Structure of the Water Mass,” Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1995, pp. 179-190. doi:10.1016/0924-7963(94)00028-A
[7] P. M. Poulain and B. Cushman-Roisin, “Circulation,” In: B. Cushman-Roisin, M. Gacic, P. M. Poulain and A. Artegiani, Eds., Physical oceanography of the Adriatic Sea. Past, Present and Future, Kluwier Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, 2001, pp. 67-109. doi:10.1007/978-94-015-9819-4_3
[8] M. Zore-Armanda, “The System of Current in the Adriatic Sea,” Studies and Reviews general Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean, Vol. 34, 1968, pp. 1-48.
[9] S. Fonda-Umani, “Successioni Fitoplanctoniche, Micro e Mesozoo Planctoniche Nell’Alto Adriatico,” In: R. Marchetti and M. Cotta Ramusino, Eds., Proccedings of the V SITE Conference, Milan, 1992, pp. 221-246.
[10] M. Zavatarelli, F. Raicich, D. Bregant, A. Russo and A. Artegiani, “Climatological Biogeochemical Characteristics of the Adriatic Sea,” Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 18, No. 1-3, 1998, pp. 227-263. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(98)00014-1
[11] M. Marini, B. H. Jones, A. Campanelli, F. Grilli and C. M. Lee, “Seasonal Variability and Po River Plume Influence on Biochemical Properties along Western Adriatic Coast,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Article ID: C05S90, 2008. doi:10.1029/2007JC004370
[12] M. Orlic, M. Gacic and P. E. La Violette, “The Currents and Circulation of the Adriatic Sea,” Oceanologica Acta, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1992, pp. 109-124.
[13] M. Marini, P. Fornasiero and A. Artegiani, “Variations of Hydrochemical Features in the Coastal Waters of Monte Conero: 1982-1990,” Marine Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2002, pp. 258-271. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0485.2002.tb00024.x
[14] D. Mickee, A. Cunningham and K. J. Jones, “Optical and Hydrographic Consequences of Freshwater Run-Off during Spring Phytoplankton Growth in a Scottish Fjord,” Journal of Plankton Research, Vol. 24, No. 11, 2002, pp. 1163-1171. doi:10.1093/plankt/24.11.1163
[15] N. K. Hojerslev, “Yellow Substance in the Sea,” In: J. Calkins, Ed., The Role of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Marine Ecosystems, Plenum, New York, 1982, pp. 263-281. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-8133-4_24
[16] K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey and P. B. Ortner, “Marine Humic and Fulvic Acids: Their Effects on Remote Sensing of Ocean Chlorophyll,” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1989, pp. 68-81. doi:10.4319/lo.1989.34.1.0068
[17] R. Del Vecchio and N. V. Blough, “Spatial and Seasonal Distribution of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in the Middle Atlantic Bight,” Marine Chemistry, Vol. 89, No. 1-4, 2004, pp. 169-187.
[18] N. B. Nelson, D. A. Siegel and A. F. Michaels, “Seasonal Dynamics of Coloured Dissolved Organic Material in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep Sea Research I, Vol. 45, No. 6, 1998, pp. 931-957. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(97)00106-4
[19] N. B. Nelson, C. A. Carlson and D. K. Steinberg, “Production of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter by Sargasso Sea Microbes,” Marine Chemistry, Vol. 89, No. 1-4, 2004, pp. 273-287. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2004.02.017
[20] D. K .Steinberg, N. B. Nelson and C. A. Carlson, “Production of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in the Open Ocean by Zooplankton and the Colonial Cyanobacterium Tricodesmium spp.,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 267, 2004, pp. 45-56. doi:10.3354/meps267045
[21] Y. Yamaschita and E. Tanoue, “In situ Production of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Coastal Environment,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 31, 2004.
[22] S. Determan, R. Reuter and R. Willkomm, “Fluorescent Matter in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Part. 2: Vertical Profiles and Relation to Water Masses,” Deep Sea Research I, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1996, pp. 345-360. doi:10.1016/0967-0637(96)00008-8
[23] A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, M. D. DeGrandpre, E. T. Peltzer and R. K. Nelson, “Seasonal Variation of CDOM and DOC in the Middle Atlantic Bight: Terrestrial Inputs and Photooxidation,” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 42, No. 4, 1997, pp. 674-686. doi:10.4319/lo.1997.42.4.0674
[24] D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorema, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, “Global Distribution and Dynamics of Colored Dissolved and Detrital Organic Materials,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, No. C12, 2002. doi:10.1029/2001JC000965
[25] D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorema, N. B. Nelson and M. J. Behrenfeld, “Independence and Interdependencies among Global Ocean Color Properties: Reassessing the BioOptical Assumption,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 110, Article ID: C07011, 2005. doi:10.1029/2004JC002527
[26] K. Mopper, X. L. Zhou, R. J. Kieber, D. J. Kieber, R. J. Sikorski and R. D. Jones, “Photochemical Degradation of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Its Impact on the Oceanic Carbon Cycle,” Nature, Vol. 353, No. 6339, 1991, pp. 60-62. doi:10.1038/353060a0
[27] K. R. Arrigo and C. W. Brown, “Impact of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter on UV Inhibition of Primary Productivity in the Open Ocean,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 140, No. 1-3, 1996, pp. 207-216. doi:10.3354/meps140207
[28] R. G. Zepp, T. V. Callaghan and D. J. Erickson, “Effect of Enhanced Ultraviolet Radiation on Biogeochemical Cycles,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Vol. 46, No. 1-3, 1998, pp. 69-82. doi:10.1016/S1011-1344(98)00186-9
[29] D. A. Toole and D. A. Siegel. “Light-Driven Cycling of Dimethilsulfide (DMS) in the Sargasso Sea: Closing the Loop,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 31, No. 9, 2004. doi:10.1029/2004GL019581
[30] T. J. Wrigley, J. M. Chambers and A. J. McComb, “Nutrient and Gilvin Levels in Waters of Coastal-Plain Wetlands in an Agricultural Area of Western Australia,” Australian Journal of Marine Freshwater Research, Vol. 39, No. 5, 1988, pp. 685-694. doi:10.1071/MF9880685
[31] R. J. Davies-Colley, “Yellow Substance in Coastal and Marine Waters Round the South Island, New Zealand,” New Zealand Journal of Marine Freshwater Research, Vol. 26, No. 3-4, 1992, pp. 311-322. doi:10.1080/00288330.1992.9516526
[32] J. T. O. Kirk, “Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems,” Cambridge University Press, New York, 1994. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511623370
[33] A. Bricaud, A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Absorption by Dissolved Organic Matter in the Sea (Yellow Substance) in the UV and Visible Domains,” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 26, No. C12, 1981, pp. 45-53.
[34] O. V. Kopelevich and V. I. Burenkov, “Relation between the Spectral Values of the Light Absorption Coefficients of Sea Water, Phytoplankton Pigments, and the Yellow Substance,” Oceanology, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1977, pp. 427-433.
[35] N. B. Nelson, D. A. Siegel and A. F. Michaels, “Seasonal Dynamics of Colored Dissolved Material in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, Vol. 45, No. 6, 1998, pp. 931-957. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(97)00106-4
[36] D. Vilicic and A. Vucak, “Microphytoplankton in the Strait of Otranto (Eastern Mediterranean),” Marine Biology, Vol. 123, No. 3, 1995, pp. 619-630. doi:10.1007/BF00349240
[37] F. Giordani, W. Helder, E. Koning, S. Miserocchi, R. Danovaro and A. Malaguti, “Gradient of Benthic-Pelagic Coupling and Carbon Budgets in the Adriatic and Northern Ionian Sea,” Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 33, 2002, pp. 365-387. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(02)00067-2
[38] V. Kovacevic, M. Gacic and P. M. Poulain, “Eulerian Current Measurement in the Strait of Otranto and in the Southern Adriatc,” Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 20, No. 1-4, 1999, pp. 255-278. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(98)00086-4
[39] P. M. Poulain, “Adriatic Sea Surface Circulation as Derived from Drifter Data between 1990 and 1999,” Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 29, No. 1-4, 2001, pp. 3-32. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(01)00007-0
[40] A. Artegiani, D. Bregant, E. Paschini, N. Pinardi, F. Raicich and A. Russo, “The Adriatic Sea General Circulation. Part II: Baroclinic Circulation Structure,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 27, No. 8, 1997, pp. 15151532. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<1515:TASGCP>2.0.CO;2
[41] P. M. Poulain, “Drifter Observations of Surface Circulation in the Adriatic Sea between December 1994 and March 1996,” Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 20, No. 14, 1999, pp. 231-253. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(98)00084-0
[42] G. Chiaudani, G. F. Gaggino, R. Marchetti and M. Vighi, “Caratteristiche Trofiche Delle Acque Costiere Adriatiche: Campagna di Rilevamento 1978-1979. CNR Progetto Finalizzato Promozione della qualità dell’Ambiente,” Serie di Monografie, Vol. 8, pp. 1-235.
[43] V. Damiani, C. N. Bianchi, O. Ferretti, D. Bedulli, C. Morri, M. Viel and G. Zurlini, “Risultati di una Ricerca Ecoloica sul Sistema Marino Costiero Pugliese,” Thalassia Salentina, Vol. 18, 1988, pp. 153-169.
[44] G. Bello, G. Marano and R. Vaccarella, “Molluschi di “Matte” Morta di Poseidonia Oceanica Delile del Litorale Barese,” Quaderni dell’Istituto di Idrobiologia e acquacultura G. Brunelli, Vol. 23, 1982, pp. 23-25.
[45] U. Simeoni, “I litorali tra Manfredonia e Barletta (Basso Adriatico); Dissesti, Sedimenti, Problematiche Ambientali,” Bollettino della società Geologica italiana, Vol. 111, No. 3-4, 1992, pp. 367-398.
[46] F. Fiesoletti, A. Specchiulli, F. Spagnoli and G. Zappalà, “A New Near Time Monitoring Network in the Gulf of Manfredonia-Southern Adriatic Sea,” In: European Operational Oceanography: Present and future, Proceedings of 4th International Conference on EuroGOOS, Brest, France, 2005, pp. 782-792.
[47] P. M. Poulain and F. Raicich, “Forcings,” In: B. Cushman-Roisin, M. Gacic, P.M. Poulain and A. Artegiani Eds., Physical oceanography of the Adriatic Sea, Past, Present and Future, Kluwier Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, 2001, pp. 45-65.
[48] S. Cozzi and M. Giani, “River Water and Nutrient Discharges in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Current Importance and Long Term Changes,” Continental Shelf Research, Vol. 31, No. 18, 2011, pp. 1881-1893. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2011.08.010
[49] UNEP, “Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP), Implications of Climate Change for the Albanian Coast,” Technical Reports Series, Vol. 98, 1996.
[50] UNESCO, “The Acquisition, Calibration and Analysis of CTD Data. A Report of SCOR WG 51,” Technical papers in Marine Sciences, No. 54, 1988, pp. 1-59.
[51] B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, J. Wieland and M. Stramska, “Determination of Spectral Absorption Coefficient of Particles, Dissolved Material and Phytoplankton for Discrete Water Samples,” In: G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller and C.R. McClain, Eds., Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Colour Sensor Validation, NASA Goddard Space Flight Centre, Greenbelt, 2003, pp. 39-64.
[52] S. W. Wrighit, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjornland, D. Repeta and N. Welschmeyer, “Improved HPLC Method for the Analysis of Chlorophylls and Carotenoids from Marine Phytoplankton,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 77, 1991, pp. 183-196.
[53] J. D. H. Strickland and T. R. Parsons, “A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis,” Bulletin of Fishery Research, Vol. 167, 1972, pp. 1-310.
[54] H. Uternohl, “Zur Vervolikommunung der Quantitative Phytoplankton, Methodik”, Mitteilungen. Internationale Vereiningung fuer Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, Vol. 9, 1958, pp. 1-38.
[55] A. Zingone, C. Totti, D. Sarno, M. Cabrini, C. Caroppo, M. G. Giacobbe, A. Lugliè, C. Nuccio and G. Socal, “Fitoplancton Metodiche di Analisi Quali-Quantitativa,” In: G. Socal, I. Buttino, M. Cabrini, O. Mangoni, A. Penna and C. Totti, Eds., Metodologie di Studio del Plancton Marino, Manuali e Linee Guida ISPRA, Roma, 2010, pp. 213-237.
[56] A. Campanelli, P. Fornasiero and M. Marini, “Physical and Chemical Characterization of Water Column in the Piceno Coastal Area (Adriatic Sea),” Fresenenius Environmental Bulletin, Vol. 13, No. 5, 2004, pp. 430-435.
[57] B. Gasparovic, T. Djakovac, N. Tepic and D. Degobbis, “Relationships between Surface-Active Organic Substances, Chlorophyll a and Nutrients in the Northern Adriatic Sea,” Continental Shelf Research, Vol. 31, No. 10, 2011, pp. 1149-1160. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2011.04.010
[58] F. Rubino, O. D. Saracino, S. Moscatello and G. Belmonte, “An integrated Water/Sediment Approach to Study Plankton (a Case Study in the Southern Adriatic Sea),” Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 78, No. 4, 2009, pp. 536-546. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.12.023
[59] N. G. Beck, K. W. Bruland and E. L. Rue, “Short-Term Biogeochemical Influence of a Diatom Bloom on the Nutrient and Trace Metal Concentrations in South San Francisco Bay Microcosm Experiments,” Estuaries, Vol. 25, No. 6A, 2002, pp. 1063-1076. doi:10.1007/BF02692204
[60] C. Llebot, Y. H. Spitz, J. Solé and M. Estrada, “The Role of Inorganic Nutrients and Dissolved Organic Phosphorus in the Phytoplankton Dynamics of a Mediterranean Bay A Modeling Study,” Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 83, No. 3-4, 2010, pp. 192-209. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2010.06.009
[61] I. Vilibic, J. W. Book, G. B. Paklar, M. Orlic, V. Dadic, M. Tudor, P. J. Martin, M. Pasaric, B. Grbec, F. Matic, H. Mihanovic and M. Morovic, “West Adriatic Coastal Excursions into the East Adriatic,” Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 78, No. 1, 2009, pp. S132-S156.
[62] G. Cronberg, E. J. Carpenter and W. W. Carmichael, “Taxonomy of Harmful Cyanobacteria,” In: G. M. Hallegraeff, D. M. Anderson and A. D. Cembella, Eds., Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, UNESCO, Paris, 2003, pp. 523-562.
[63] D. Vilicic, “Fitoplankton Jadrangskoga Mora,” Skolska knjiga, Zagreb, 2002.
[64] M. Cabrini, D. Fornasaro, D. Virgilio, A. Campanelli, Grilli F. and M. Marini, “Biodiversità del Fitoplancton Lungo la Fascia Costiera Montenegrina Albanese,” Biologia Marina Mediterranea, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2009, pp. 376-377.
[65] I. Vilibic and M. Orlic, “Adriatic Water Masses, Their Rates of Formation and Transport Through the Otranto Strait,” Deep Sea Research, Part I, Vol. 49, No. 8, 2002, pp. 1321-1340.
[66] D. Vilicic, I. Marasovic, D. Miokovic, “Checklist of phytoplankton in the eastern Adriatic Sea,” Acta Botanica Croatia, Vol. 61, No. 1, 2002, pp. 57-91.
[67] N. Vuksanovic and S. Krivokapic, “Prilog Poznavanju Fitoplanktona Kotorskog Zaliva u Zimskoj Sezoni 2004,” Zbornik radova, Vol. 2, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 347-350.
[68] A. Campanelli, A. Bulatovic, M. Cabrini, F. Grilli, Z. Kljajic, R. Mosetti, E. Paschini, P. Penna and M. Marini, “Spatial Distribution of Physical, Chemical and Biological Oceanographic Properties, Phytoplankton, Nutrients and Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in the Boka Kotorska Bay (Adriatic Sea),” Geofizika, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2009, pp. 215-228.
[69] E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld and A. H. Bernard, “Spatial and Temporal Variability of Absorption by Dissolved Material at a Continental Shelf,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 106, No. C5, 2001, pp. 9499-9507.
[70] P. G. Coble. “Marine Optical Biogeochemistry: The Chemistry of Ocean Color,” Chemical Reviews, Vol. 107, No. 2, 2007, pp. 402-418. doi:10.1021/cr050350+

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.