Y3Fe5O12 Prepared by Mechanosynthesis from Different Iron Sources


Yttrium iron garnet, Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) powders were synthesized by mechanochemical processing (MCP) from different iron sources (FeO, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4) mixed with Y2O3, followed by a heat treatment. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that MCP followed by annealing at very low temperatures (as compared with the classic solid state reaction) can induce the formation of nanostructured YIG. The effect of iron source on final structure was also studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the synthesized powders. The precursors mixed in a stoichiometric ratio to obtain YIG were milled at room temperature in a shaker mixer mill with a ball:powder weight ratio of 10:1. A partial synthesis of YIG was achieved after 9 h of milling time by using the three sources of iron; however, a significant fraction of the product was the perovskite YFeO3. The largest yield of YIG was obtained by using FeO. In all cases a single garnet phase could only be completely obtained after an annealing process at 900?C, around 400?C lower than the typical temperatures to prepare the material by solid state reaction. An analysis of the microstrain and lattice parameters associated with peak displacements is discussed.

Share and Cite:

C. Cortés-Escobedo, A. Bolarín-Miró, F. Jesús, R. Valenzuela, E. Juárez-Camacho, I. Samperio-Gómez and S. Ammar, "Y3Fe5O12 Prepared by Mechanosynthesis from Different Iron Sources," Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 3 No. 1A, 2013, pp. 41-46. doi: 10.4236/ampc.2013.31A006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Z. Cheng, H. Yang, L. Yu and W. Xu, “Saturation Magnetic Properties of Y3-x RexFe5O12(Re: Gd, Dy, Nd, Sm and La) Nanoparticles Grown by a Sol-Gel Method,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 19, No. 5, 2008, pp. 442-447. doi:10.1007/s10854-007-9357-7
[2] M. N. Ramani, M. C. Radhakrishna, A. Hassnpour, M. Mozaffari and J. Amighian, “The Correlation of Lattice Constant with Superexchange Interaction in Bi-YIG Fabricated by Mechanochemical Processing,” Hyperfine Interactions, Vol. 184, No. 1-3, 2008, pp. 161-166. doi:10.1007/s10751-008-9783-9
[3] M. N. Ramani, M. C. Radhakrishna, A. Hassnpour, M. Mozaffari and J. Amighian, “Magnetic Studies of BixY3-xFe5O12 Fabricated Using Conventional Method,” Hyperfine Interactions, Vol. 187, No. 1-3, 2008, pp. 137-141. doi:10.1007/s10751-008-9875-6
[4] Z. Cheng, Y. Cui, H. Yang and Y. Chang, “Effect Lanthanum Ions on Magnetic Properties of Y3Fe5O12,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Vol. 11, No. 5, 2009, pp. 1185- 1192. doi:10.1007/s11051-008-9501-1
[5] S. R. Nimbore, D. R. Shengule, S. J. Shukla, G. K. Bichile and K. M. Jadhav, “Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Lanthanum Substitututed Yttium Iron Garnets,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 41, No. 19, 2006, pp. 6460-6464.
[6] H. Xu and H. Yang, “Magnetic Properties of YIG Doped with Cerium and Gadolinium Ions,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 19, No. 7, 2008, pp. 589-593. doi:10.1007/s10854-007-9394-2
[7] A. G. Arias, C. Torres, C. de Francisco, J. M. Muñoz, P. H. Gòmez, O. Alejos, O. Montero and J. I. Iñiguez, “Defect Concentration in Ti-Subtituted YIG from Tg Curves,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 86, No. 1, 2006, pp. 195-198. doi:10.1007/s10973-005-7155-0
[8] S.-M. Sim, K. A. Keller and T.-I. Mah, “Phase Formation in Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Powders Synthesized by Chemical Methods,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2000, pp. 713-717. doi:10.1023/A:1004709401795
[9] M. Rozman, M. Drofenik and J. Stefan, “Sintering of Nanosized MnZn Ferrite Powders,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 81, No. 7, 1998, pp. 1757-1764. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1998.tb02545.x
[10] S. H. Vajargah, H. R. M. Hosseini and Z. A. Nemati, “Preparation and Characterization of Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) Nanocrystalline Powders by Auto-Combustion of Nitrate-Citrate Gel,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 430, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 339-343. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2006.05.023
[11] M. Mikami and K. Matsumi, “Epitaxial Growth of Yttrium Iron Garnet by Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1977, pp. 1-8. doi:10.1016/0022-0248(77)90136-1
[12] X. Z. Guo, B. G. Ravi, Q. Y. Yan, R. J. Gambino, S. Sampath, J. Margolies and J. B. Parise, “Phase and Microstructure Evolution in Precursor Plasma-Sprayed YIG Coatings,” Ceramics International, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2006, pp. 61-66. doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2005.02.001
[13] A. M. Bolarín-Miró, P. Vera-Serna, F. Sánchez-De Jesús, C. A. Cortés-Escobedo and A. Martínez-Luévanos, “Mechanosynthesis and Magnetic Characterization of Nanocrystalline Manganese Ferrites,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 22, No. 8, 2011, pp. 1046-1052. doi:10.1007/s10854-010-0257-x
[14] T. Verdier, V. Nachbaur and M. Jean, “Mechanosynthesis of Zinc Ferrite in Hardened Steel Vials: Influence of ZnO on the Appearance of Fe(II),” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Vol. 178, No. 11, 2005, pp. 3243-3250. doi:10.1016/j.jssc.2005.07.033
[15] A. Paesano Jr., S. C. Zanatta, S. N. de Medeiros, L. F. Cótica and J. B. da Cunha, “Mechanosynthesis of YIG and GdIG: A Structural and Mössbauer Study,” Hyperfine Interactions, Vol. 161, No. 1-4, 2005, pp. 211-220. doi:10.1007/s10751-005-9193-1
[16] H. M. Widatallah, C. Johnson, S. H. Al-harthi, A. M. Gismelssed, A. D. Al-Rawas, S. J. Stewart, M. E. Elzain, I. A. Al-Omari and A. A. Yousif, “A Structural and Mössbauer Study of Y3Fe5O12 Nanoparticles Prepared with High Energy Ball Milling and Subsequent Sintering,” Hyperfine Interactions, Vol. 183, No. 1-3, 2008, pp. 87-92. doi:10.1007/s10751-008-9734-5
[17] P. M. Botta, P. G. Bercoft, E. F. Aglietti, H. R. Bertorello and J. M. P. López, “Two Alternative Synthesis Routes for MnZn Ferrites Using Mechanochemical Treatments,” Ceramics International, Vol. 32, No. 8, 2006, pp. 857- 863. doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2005.05.023
[18] M. Jalaly, M. H. Enayati, F. Karimzadeh and P. Kameli, “Mechanosynthesis of Nanostructured Magnetic Ni-Zn Ferrite,” Powder Technology, Vol. 193, No. 2, 2009, pp. 150- 153. doi:10.1016/j.powtec.2009.03.008
[19] V. Sepelak, M. Menzel, K. D. Becker and F. Krumeich, “Mechanochemical Reduction of Magnesium Ferrite,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 106, No. 26, 2002, pp. 20-25.
[20] P. Coppens and M. Eibschuetz, “Determination of the Crystal Structure of Yttrium Orthoferrite and Refinement of Gadolinium Orthoferrite,” Acta Crystallographica, Vol. 19, 1965, pp. 524-531. doi:10.1107/S0365110X65003833
[21] D. Balzar and N. C. Popa, “Analyzing Microstructure by Rietveld Refinement,” Rigaku Journal, Vol. 22, 2005, pp. 16-25.
[22] E. A. Owen and G. I. Williams, “A Low-Temperature X- Ray Camera,” Journal of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1954, pp. 49-54. doi:10.1088/0950-7671/31/2/305
[23] M. Bonnet, A. Delapalme, H. Fuess and M. Thomas, “Refinement of the Structure of Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). A Case of Severe Extinction and Absorption,” Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Crystallography and Crystal Chemistry, Vol. 31, 1975, pp. 2233-2240. doi:10.1107/S0567740875007315
[24] R. L. Blake, R. E. Hessevick, T. Zoltai and L. W. Finger, “Refinement of the Hematite Structure,” American Mineralogist, Vol. 51, 1966, pp. 123-129.
[25] M. G. Paton and E. N. Maslen, “A Refinement of the Crystal Structure of Yttria,” Acta Crystallographica, Vol. 19, 1965, pp. 307-310. doi:10.1107/S0365110X65003365
[26] J. Benard, “Recherches Sur Les Variations de Composition du Protoxyde de Fer,” Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, 1949, pp. 109-116.
[27] G. G. Dvoryankina and Z. G. Pinsker, “The Electron Diffraction Pattern Investigation of Fe3O4,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol. 132, 1960, pp. 110-113.
[28] Outokompu, “HSC Chemistry? for Windows,” Pori, 2002.
[29] R. Valenzuela, “Magnetic Ceramics,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005, pp. 68-69.
[30] C. Kooy, “Material Transport in Solid State Reactions,” Fifth International Symposium on the Reactivity of Solids, Munich, 1965, pp. 21-28.
[31] H. Danan, A. Herr and A. J. P. Meyer, “New Determinations of the Saturation Magnetization of Nickel and Iron,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1968, pp. 669- 670. doi:10.1063/1.2163571
[32] M. Mozaffari, M. Gheisari, M. Niyaifar and J. Amighian, “Magnetic Properties of Mechanochemically Prepared Iron- Wüstite (Fe-FeyO) Nanocomposites,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 321, No. 19, 2009, 2981-2984. doi:10.1016/j.jmmm.2009.04.034

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.