Economic Assessment and Socio-Economic Evaluation of Water Use Efficiency in Artichoke Cultivation


The aim of this work is to provide a methodology for analysing socioeconomic aspects of water resource management that will provide with an objective decision making tool. To validate the proposed analysis method here, we refer to three artichoke production options. The economic evaluations indicate that the drip irrigation systems are viable and profitable. The traditional method of flooding is not a viable option despite needing the lowest investment, but is close to the viability threshold. In reference to water use efficiency, option 1 is by far the most effective (3.60 kg·m-3 compared with 2.25 and 2.18 kg·m-3, respectively). In our analysis we find that the most productive systems generate the most employment per unit of surface area. Option 1 is the most competitive in relation with the water factor, since it could support prices up to 0.53 €·m-3 and still be economically viable. System 2 will not be viable if the price exceeds 0.22 €·m-3. Option 3 is viable up to 0.17 €·m-3, which is more than is paid at the present time in Sardinia, although such an option would not be viable in south-eastern Spain.

Share and Cite:

J. García García, F. Contreras López, D. Usai and C. Visani, "Economic Assesment and Socio-Economic Evaluation of Water Use Efficiency in Artichoke Cultivation," Open Journal of Accounting, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2013, pp. 45-52. doi: 10.4236/ojacct.2013.22008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. Canovas, “Análisis de los Diagnósticos Regionales Sobre Gestión de Recursos Hídricos Aplicados a Agricultura,” Working Paper of Novagrimed Project (Programa MED Referencia CTE 1621), 2011.
[2] A. Millán, “Rentabilidad del Agua en los Cultivos más Representativos en la Cuenca del Segura,” Consejería de Agricultura, Ganadería y Pesca, Murcia, 1988.
[3] J. G. García, “Evaluación Económica y Eficiencia del Agua de Riego en Frutales de Regadío,” Consejería de Agricultura y Agua, Murcia, 2007.
[4] J. G. García and J. G. Brunton, “Eficiencia Económica del Agua de Riego en el Cultivo de Diferentes Grupos Varietales de Melocotón,” Fruticultura Profesional, No. 172, 2008, pp. 128-139.
[5] T. M. De Jong, W. Tsuji, J. F. Doyle and Y. L. Grossman, “Comparative Economic Efficiency of Four Peach Production Systems in California,” Hort Science, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1999, pp. 73-78.
[6] R. P. Marini and D. S. Sowers, “Peach Tree Growth, Yield and Profitability as Influenced by Tree for and Tree Density,” Hort Science, Vol. 35, No. 5, 2000, pp. 837-842.
[7] P. R. Azorín, J. G. García and P. B. Ordaz, “Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Regulated Deficit-Irrigated Almond Orchard under Subsurface Drip Irrigation Conditions in South-Eastern Spain,” Irrigation Science, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2006, pp. 175-184. doi:10.1007/s00271-005-0008-6
[8] J. G. García, A. Martínez and P. Romero, “Financial Analysis of Wine Grape Production Using Regulated Deficit Irrigation and Partial-Root Zone Drying Strategies,” Irrigation Science, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2012, pp. 179-188. doi:10.1007/s00271-011-0274-4
[9] D. A. Goldhamer, M. Viveros and M. Salinas, “Regulated Deficit Irrigation in Almonds: Effects of Variations in Applied Water and Stress Timing on Yield and Yield Components,” Irrigation Science, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2006, pp. 101-114. doi:10.1007/s00271-005-0014-8
[10] B. Dichio, C. Xiloyannis, A. Sofo and G. Montanaro, “Effects of Post-Harvest Regulated Deficit Irrigation on Carbohydrate and Nitrogen Partitioning, Yield Quality and Vegetative Growth of Peach Trees,” Plant Soil, Vol. 290, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 127-137. doi:10.1007/s11104-006-9144-x
[11] S. A. Alkhamisi, H. A. Abdelrahman, M. Ahmed and M. F. A. Goosen, “Assessment of Reclaimed Water Irrigation on Growth, Yield, and Water-Use Efficiency of Forage Crops,” Applied Water Science, Vol. 1, No. 1-2, 2011, pp. 57-65. doi:10.1007/s13201-011-0009-y
[12] J. S. Neal, W. J. Fulkerson and B. G. Sutton, “Differences in Water-Use Efficiency among Perennial Forages Used by the Dairy Industry under Optimum and Deficit Irrigation,” Irrigation Science, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2011, pp. 213-232.
[13] I. Hussain, H. Turral, D. Molden and M. Ahmad, “Measuring and Enhancing the Value of Agricultural Water in Irrigated River Basins,” Irrigation Science, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2007, pp. 263-282. doi:10.1007/s00271-007-0061-4
[14] R. Salvador, A. Martínez-Cob, J. Cavero and E. Playán, “Seasonal On-Farm Irrigation Performance in the Ebro Basin (Spain): Crops and Irrigation Systems,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 98, No. 4, 2011, pp. 577-587. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2010.10.003
[15] J. I. Macua, “New Horizons for Artichoke Cultivation. Proceedings of VI International Symposium on Artichoke, Cardoon and Their Wild Relatives,” Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 730, 2007, pp. 39-48.
[16] R. Layard and S. Glaister, “Costs Benefit Analysis,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994, p. 497. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511521942
[17] E. Ballestero, “Economía de la Empresa,” Alianza Editorial, Madrid, 2000, p. 416.
[18] J. G. García, P. Romero, P. Botía and F. García, “Cost Benefit Analysis of Almond Orchard under Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI) in SE Spain,” Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2004, pp. 157-165.
[19] J. G. García, P. Romero, P. Botía and F. García, “Análisis Económico del Cultivo de Almendro en Riego Deficitario Controlado (RDC),” Fruticultura Profesional, Vol. 154, 2005, pp. 43-50.
[20] J. G. Pérez-Pérez, J. García, J. M. Robles and P. Botía, “Economic Analysis of Navel Orange cv. ‘Lane late’ Grown on Two Different Drought-Tolerant Rootstocks under Deficit Irrigation in South-Eastern Spain,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 97, No. 1, 2010, pp. 157-164. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2009.08.023
[21] F. Alcón, M. D. de Miguel, J. A. Fernández and L. F. Condés, “Study of the Economic Viability of Artichoke Cultivations with Sexual or Vegetative Reproduction in Region of Murcia,” Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Artichoke, Cardoon and Their Wild Relatives, Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 730, 2007, pp. 465-471.
[22] D. Rigby, F. Alcón and M. Burton, “Supply Uncertainty and the Economic Value of Irrigation Water,” European Review of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2010, pp. 97-117. doi:10.1093/erae/jbq001
[23] D. A. Goldhamer, M. Salinas, C. Crisosto, K. R. Day, M. Soler and A. Moriana, “Effects of Regulated Deficit Irrigation and Partial Root Zone Drying on Late Harvest Peach Tree Perfomance,” Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 592, 2002, pp. 343-350.
[24] L. H. Bassoi, B. F. Dantas, J. M. P. Lima, M. A. C. Lima, P. C. S. Leao, D. J. Silva, J. L. T. Maia, C. R. Souza, J. A. M. Silva and M. M. Ramos, “Preliminary Results of a Long-Term Experiment about RDI and PRD Irrigation Strategies in Wine Grapes in Sao Francisco Valley, Brasil,” Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 754, 2007, pp. 275-282.
[25] E. Fereres, D. A. Goldhamer and L. R. Parsons, “Irrigation Water Management of Horticultural Crops,” Hort Science, Vol. 38, No. 5, 2003, pp. 1036-1042.
[26] X. Cai, M. W. Rosegrant and C. Ringler, “Physical and Economic Efficiency of Water Use in the River Basin: Implications for Efficient Water Management,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2003, pp. 1013-1029. doi:10.1029/2001WR000748
[27] M. M. Clop, L. Cots, M. Esteban and J. D. Barragán, “Rentabilidad Económica del Regadío de Los Canales de Urgell (Lleida, Espana),” Información Técnica Económica Agraria (ITEA), Vol. 105, No. 1, 2009, pp. 36-48.
[28] S. K. Jalota, A. Sood, J. D. Vitale and R. Srinivasan, “Simulated Crop Yields Response to Irrigation Water and Economic Analysis: Increasing Irrigated Water Use Efficiency in the Indian Punjab,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 99, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1073-1084. doi:10.2134/agronj2006.0054
[29] A. Ward and M. Ari, “The Economic Value of Water in Agriculture: Concepts and Policy Applications,” Water Policy, Vol. 4, No. 5, 2002, pp. 423-446. doi:10.1016/S1366-7017(02)00039-9
[30] P. J. G. J. Hellegers, R. Soppe, C. J. Perry and W. G. M. Bastiaanssen, “Combining Remote Sensing and Economic Analysis to Support Decisions that Affect Water Productivity,” Irrigation Science, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2009, pp. 243-251. doi:10.1007/s00271-008-0139-7
[31] EEC, “Hacia un Sector Vitivinícola Europeo,” Informe de la Comisión Europea, 2006.,
[32] CES (Consejo Económico y Social de Murcia), “Informe Sobre la Situación Hidrológica y Socioeconómica en la Cuenca del Segura en el Nuevo Contexto del Plan Hidrológico Nacional,” 2000.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.