Influence of compound aescine gel on ultrastructure of vein infused mannitol and its mechanism


Purpose: When hypertonic solution 20% mannitol solution was injected into vein, inflammatory mediators and Mitogen-activated protein kinases activated by mannitol can directly induce the fading of vascular endothelial cell, which leads to phlebitis. The study aims to observe the influences of reparil-gel N coated at the proximal parts of the puncture point and basing on this along with infusing heated mannitol to veins to the injure and ultrastructure of veins which were infused the 20% mannitol solution by indwelling needle in vein. Methodology: There are 15 adult New Zealand rabbits. We randomly divided 24 ear veins of 12 adult New Zealand rabbits into Control group, Gelatum group, Gel heated group and injected 20% mannitol solution by vein detained needle in three groups. In Gelatum group, we coated the proximal end of the puncture point with a thin layer of compound aescine gel. Based on Gelatum group, we heated 20% mannitol solution to 35oC-37oC in Gel heated group. Then we observed the intravenous parts and took the veins of each group out to observe their morphology and ultrastructural after the second day of transfusion. 6 ear veins of the rest 3 rabbits as Health group weren’t given any interventions, the veins were taken out to observe their morphology. Results: Comparison between Gelatum group and Gelatum heated group on vascular dilatation, Infiltration of inflammatory cell and Formation of thrombus had no significance, P> 0.05, while the case was different for the comparison on injury of vascular wall, perivascular edema and perivascular hemorrhage, P< 0.05). The statistical significance exists between control group and Gelatum group and Gel heated group, P< 0.05. It was observed under the electron microscope that, in control group, the membrane of endothelial cell peeled off and the mitochondria swelled and vacuolized. In Gelatum group, the membrane of endothelial cell was defective, the parts of the mitochondria were fuzzy, intercellular substance was slightly edematous. In Gel heated group, the mitochondria were clear and intercellular substance slightly swelled. It could be found that the function of phagocyte was complete. Conclusions: Compound aescine gel can prevent phlebitis or reduce the incidence of phlebitis. The combined intervention of coating with a thin layer of compound aescine gel and heating mannitol solution can produce better effect.

Share and Cite:

Zhang, J., Wang, H., Gui, Y., Li, W. and Zhou, W. (2013) Influence of compound aescine gel on ultrastructure of vein infused mannitol and its mechanism. Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, 1, 30-35. doi: 10.4236/fmar.2013.12006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Talagakis, V., Kahn, S.R., Libman, M. and Blostein, M. (2002) The epidemiology of peripheral vein infusion thrombophlebitis: A critical review. The American Journal of Medicine, 113, 146-151. doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(02)01163-4
[2] Lu, B.Q., Wang, H.P., Chen, W., et al. (2009) Phlebitis in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and its correlates. Nursing Journal of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, 26, 5-7.
[3] Xin, Y.F., Wang, L.P., Qiao, L.Q., et al. (2000) Experimental study of the damage of mannitol at different temperatures to the ear-vein of rabbits. Nursing Journal of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, 17, 1-2.
[4] Sun, C.H. (2008) Observation to vascular protection on infusing mannitol. Journal of Emergency in Traditional Chinese Medicine, 17, 1029-1030.
[5] Ren, X.D., Qu, Z.P., Yang, X., et al. (1998) The effect of mannitol on peripheral veins in the rabbit. Chinese Journal of Nursing, 33, 68-70.
[6] Chen, L.F., Xu, C. and Zhou, W.M. (2010) The observation on pulse type flushing tube combined with magnesium sulfate wet compress to prevent phlebitis’ effect. Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22, 214-215.
[7] Gorski, L.A. and HHCNS-BC (2004) Speaking of standards. The Art and Science of Infusion Nursing, 32, 125- 126. doi:10.1097/NAN.0b013e3181a2835a
[8] Uslusoy, E. and Mete, S. (2008) Predisposing factors to phlebitis in patients with peripheral intravenous catheters: A descriptive study. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 20, 172-180. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7599.2008.00305.x
[9] Jin, H. (2001) The function and application of Reparilgel N. Chinese New Drugs Journal, 6, 128.
[10] Xiang, Q.J., Li, C.S. and Hu, Y., et al. (2009) Effect of the different basal body temperature of rabbits on pyrogen test results. Progress in Microbiology and Immunology, 37, 28-31.
[11] Malek, A.M., Goss, G.G., Jiang, L., et al. (1998) Mannitol at clinical concentration activates multiple signaling pathways and induces apoptosis in endothelial cells. Stroke, 29, 2631-2640. doi:10.1161/01.STR.29.12.2631
[12] Sun, W.X., Lin, L.H., Cao, C.H., et al. (2009) The toxic effects and corresponding countermeasures of mannitol. Chinese Journal of Modern Drug Application, 3, 142-143.
[13] Pan, K.Y., Shang, S.Q., Dai, X.N., et al. (2006) An experiment on inhibitive affection of vitamin C on the apoptosis of vascular endothelial cell induced by mannitol. Journal of Pediatric Pharmacy, 12, 1-3.
[14] Pan, Ky., Shen, M.P., Ye, Z.H., et al. (2006) Inhibitive effects of antioxidative vitamins on mannitol-induced apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. Journal of Zhejiang University. Science B, 7, 825-829. doi:10.1631/jzus.2006.B0825
[15] Peng, C.X. (2000) Application of two type vein detained needle in general surgery infusion. Journal of Nursing Science, 15, 617.
[16] Grove, J.R. and Pevec, W.C. (2003) Venous thrombosis related to peripherally inserted central catheters. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 1, 83.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.