State of the Art Manufacturing and Engineering of Nanocellulose: A Review of Available Data and Industrial Applications (Review Paper)

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1212KB) PP. 165-188
DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.42022    11,404 Downloads   19,096 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment
Serge Rebouillat, Fernand Pla


This review provides a critical overview of the recent methods and processes developed for the production of cellulose nanoparticles with controlled morphology, structure and properties, and also sums up (1) the processes for the chemical modifications of these particles in order to prevent their re-aggregation during spray-drying procedures and to increase their reactivity, (2) the recent processes involved in the production of nanostructured biomaterials and composites. The structural and physical properties of those nanocelluloses, combined with their biodegradability, make them materials of choice in the very promising area of nanotechnology, likely subject to major commercial successes in the context of green chemistry. With a prospective and pioneering approach to the subject matter, various laboratories involved in this domain have developed bio-products now almost suitable to industrial applications; although some important steps remain to be overcome, those are worth been reviewed and supplemented. At this stage, several pilot units and demonstration plants have been built to improve, optimize and scale-up the processes developed at laboratory scale. Industrial reactors with suitable environment and modern control equipment are to be expected within that context. This review shall bring the suitable processing dimension that may be needed now, given the numerous reviews outlining the product potential attributes. An abundant literature database, close to 250 publications and patents, is provided, consolidating the various research and more practical angles.

Cite this paper

S. Rebouillat and F. Pla, "State of the Art Manufacturing and Engineering of Nanocellulose: A Review of Available Data and Industrial Applications," Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 165-188. doi: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.42022.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

[1] D. Klemm, H. Schmauder and T. Heinze, “Cellulose,” Biopolymers, Vol. 6, 2002, pp. 275-319.
[2] D. Klem, B. Heublein, H. Fink and A. Bohn, “Cellulose: Fascinating Biopolymer and Sustainable Raw Material,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 44, No. 22, 2005, pp. 3358-3393. doi:10.1002/anie.200460587
[3] L. Petersson, I. Kvien, K. Oksman, “Structure and Thermal Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid)/Cellulose Whiskers Nanocomposite Materials,” Composites Science and Technology., Vol. 67, No. 11-12, 2007, pp. 2535-2544. doi:10.1016/j.compscitech.2006.12.012
[4] Y. Habibi, L. A. Lucia and O. J. Rojas, “Cellulose Nanocrystals: Chemistry, Self-Assembly, and Applications,” Chemical Review, Vol. 110, No. 6, 2010, pp. 3479-3500. doi:10.1021/cr900339w
[5] D. Klemm, F. Kramer, S. Moritz, et al., “Nanocelluloses: A New Family of Natural-Based Materials,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 50, No. 24, 2011, 5438-5466. doi:10.1002/anie.201001273
[6] S. J. Eichhorn, C. A. Baillie, N. Zafeiropoulos, L. Y. Mwaikambo, M. P. Ansell, A. Dufresne, K. M. Entwistle, P. J. Herrera-Franco, G. C. Escamilla, L. Groom, M. Hugues, C. Hill, T. G. Rials and P. M. Wild, “Review: Current International Research into Cellulosic Fibres and Composites,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 36, No. 9, 2001, pp. 2107-2131. doi:10.1023/A:1017512029696
[7] L. Pranger and R. Tannenbaum, “Biobased Nanocomposites Prepared by in Situ Polymerization of Furfuryl Alcohol with Cellulose Whiskers or Montmorillonite Clay,” Macromolecules, Vol. 41, No. 22, 2008, pp. 8682-8687. doi:10.1021/ma8020213
[8] D. Klemm, D. Schumann, F. Kramer, N. Hessler, M. Hornung, H. P. Schmauder and S. Marsch, “Nanocelluloses as Innovative Polymers in Research and Application,” Polysaccharides, Vol. 205, 2006, pp. 49-96.
[9] M. Henriksson and L. A. Berglund, “Structure and Proerties of Cellulose Nanocomposite Films Containing Melamine Formaldehyde,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 106, No. 4, 2007, pp. 2817-2824. doi:10.1002/app.26946
[10] S. Iwamoto, A. N. Nakagaito and H. Yano, “Nanofibrillation of Pulp Fibers for the Processing of Transparent Nanocomposites,” Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, Vol. 89, No. 2, 2007, pp. 461-466. doi:10.1007/s00339-007-4175-6
[11] V. Favier, H. Chanzy and J. Y. Cavaille, “Polymer Nanocomposites Reinforced by Cellulose Whiskers,” Macromolecules, Vol. 28, No. 18, 1995, pp. 6365-6367. doi:10.1021/ma00122a053
[12] F. A. L. Clowes and B. E. Juniper, “Plant Cells,” Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, 1968.
[13] H. A. Krässig, “Cellulose Structure, Accessibility and Reactivity,” Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Yverdon, 1993, pp. 307-314.
[14] H. C. Brittain, G. Lewen , A. W. Newman, K. Fiorelli and S. Bogdanowich, “Changes in Material Properties Accompanying the National Formulary (NF) Identity Test for Microcrystalline Cellulose,” Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1993, pp. 61-67. doi:10.1023/A:1018921012812
[15] N. Y. Uesu, E. A. G. Pineda and A. A. W. Hechenleitner, “Microcrystalline Cellulose from Soybean Husk: Effects of Solvent Treatments on Its Properties as Acetylsalicylic Acid Carrier,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Vol. 206, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 85-96 doi:10.1016/S0378-5173(00)00532-9
[16] B. L. Peng, N. Dhar, H. L. Liu and K. C. Tam, “Chemistry and Applications of Nanocrystalline Cellulose and Its Derivatives: A Nanotechnology Perspective,” The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 89, No. 5, 2011, pp. 1191-1206. doi:10.1002/cjce.20554
[17] S. Beck-Candanedo, M. Roman and D. G. Gray, “Effect of Reaction Conditions on the Properties and Behavior of Wood Cellulose Nanocrystals Suspensions,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2005, pp. 1048-1054. doi:10.1021/bm049300p
[18] D. Bondeson, A. Mathew and K. Oksman, “Optimization of the Isolation of Nanocrystals from Microcrystalline Cellulose by Acid Hydrolysis,” Cellulose, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2006, pp. 171-180. doi:10.1007/s10570-006-9061-4
[19] X. Li, E. Ding and G. Li, “A Method of Preparing Spherical Nanocrystals Cellulose with Mixed Crystalline Forms of Cellulose I and II,” Chinese Journal of Polymer Science, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2001, pp. 291-296.
[20] M. T. Postek, A. Vladar, J. Dagata, et al., “Cellulose Nanocrystals the Next Big Nano-Thing?” Proceedings of SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering, San Diego, 10 August 2008, p. 7042
[21] M. A. Hubbe, O. J. Rojas, L. A. Lucia and M. Sain, “Cellulosic Nanocomposites—A Review,” BioResources, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2008, pp. 929-980.
[22] I. Siro and D. Plackett, “Microfibrillated Cellulose and New Nanocomposite Materials: A Review,” Cellulose, Vol. 17, No. 3, 2010, pp. 459-494. doi:10.1007/s10570-010-9405-y
[23] P. Stenius and M. Andresen, “Highlights in Colloid Science,” Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinhelm, 2009, pp. 135-154.
[24] W. Stelte and A. R. Sanadi, “Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanofibers from Two Commercial Hardwood and Softwood Pulps,” Industrial and Engineer Chemistry Research, Vol. 48, No. 24, 2009, pp. 1121111219. doi:10.1021/ie9011672
[25] R. H. Marchessault, F. F. Morehead and N. M. Walter, “Liquid Crystal Systems from Fibrillar Polysaccharides,” Nature, Vol. 184, No. 4686, 1959, pp. 632-633. doi:10.1038/184632a0
[26] M. Henriksson, G. Henriksson, L. A. Berglund and T. Lindström, “An Environmentally Friendly Method for Enzyme Assisted Preparation of Microfibrillated Cellulose (MFC) Nanofibers,” European Polymer, Vol. 43, No. 8, 2007, pp. 3434-3441. doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2007.05.038
[27] M. Pääkkö, M .Ankerfors, H. Kosonen, A. Nykanen, S. Ahola, M. Osterberg, J. Ruokolainen, J. Laine, P. T. Larsson, O. Ikkala and T. Lindström, “Enzymatic Hydrolysis Combined with Mechanical Shearing and HighPressure Homogenization for Nanoscale Cellulose Fibrils and Strong Gels,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 8, No. 6, 2007, pp. 1934-1941. doi:10.1021/bm061215p
[28] E. Abraham, B. M. Cherian, C. N. George and L. A. Pothan, “Process for Synthesis of Nanofibrils of Natural Fibers by Steam Explosion,” IN200702267-I4, 2010.
[29] H. H. Anette, “Preparation of Microfibrillar Polysaccharide Used to Provide Microfibrillar Cellulose Comprises Treating Polysaccharide in Aqueous Suspension Having Oxidant and Transition Metal, and Mechanically Delaminating of Polysaccharide,” WO2007001229-A1, 2007.
[30] F. A. Agblevor, M. M. Ibrahim and W. K. El-Zawawy, “Coupled Acid and Enzyme Mediated Production of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Corn Cob and Cotton Gin Waste,” Cellulose, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2007, pp. 247-256. doi:10.1007/s10570-006-9103-y
[31] S. Elazzouzi-Hafraoui, Y. Nishiyama, J. L. Putaux, L. Heux, F. Dubreuil and C. Rochas, “The Shape and Size Distribution of Crystalline Nanoparticles Prepared by Acid Hydrolysis of Native Cellulose,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2008, pp. 57-65. doi:10.1021/bm700769p
[32] T. Saito, Y. Nishiyama, J. L. Putaux, M. Vignon and A. Isogai, “Homogeneous Suspensions of Individualized Microfibrils from TEMPO-Catalyzed Oxidation of Native Cellulose,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 7, No. 6, 2006, pp. 1687-1691. doi:10.1021/bm060154s
[33] B. S. L. Brito, F. V. Pereira, J. L Putaux and B. Jean, “Preparation, Morphology and Structure of Cellulose Nanocrystals from Bamboo Fibers,” Cellulose, Vol. 19, No. 5, 2012, pp. 1527-1536. doi:10.1007/s10570-012-9738-9
[34] Y. Habibi and A. Dufresne, “Highly Filled Bionanocomposites from Functionalised Polysaccharide Nanocrystals,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 9, No. 7, 2008, pp. 19741980. doi:10.1021/bm8001717
[35] N. L. G. de Rodriguez, W. Thielemans and A. Dufresne, “Sisal Cellulose Whiskers Reinforced Polyvinyl Acetate Nanocomposites,” Cellulose, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2006, pp. 261-270. doi:10.1007/s10570-005-9039-7
[36] G. Siqueira, J. Bras and A. Dufresne, “Cellulose Whiskers versus Microfibrils: Influence of the Nature of the Nanoparticle and Its Surface Functionalization on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2009, pp. 425-432. doi:10.1021/bm801193d
[37] W. Helbert, J. Y. Cavaille and A. Dufresne, “Thermoplastic Nanocomposites Filled with Wheat Straw Cellulose Whiskers. Part I: Processing and Mechanical Behavior,” Polymer Composites, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1996, pp. 604611. doi:10.1002/pc.10650
[38] A. Dufresne, J. Y. Cavaille and W. Helbert, “Thermoplastic Nanocomposites Filled with Wheat Straw Cellulose Whiskers. Part II: Effect of Processing and Modeling,” Polymer Composites, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1997, pp. 198-210. doi:10.1002/pc.10274
[39] A. Alemdar and M. Sain, “Isolation and Characterization of Nanofibers from Agricultural Residues-Wheat Straw and Soy Hulls,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 99, No. 6, 2008, pp. 1664-1671. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2007.04.029
[40] T. Zimmermann, N. Bordeanu and E. Strub, “Properties of Nanofibrillated Cellulose from Different Raw Materials and Its Reinforcement Potential,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 79, No. 4, 2010, pp. 1086-1093. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2009.10.045
[41] S. Kimura and T. Itoh, “New Cellulose Synthesizing Complexes (Terminal Complexes) Involved in Animal Cellulose Biosynthesis in Tunicate Metandrocarpa uedai,” Protoplasma, Vol. 194, No. 3-4, 1996, pp. 151-163. doi:10.1007/BF01882023
[42] W. Helbert, Y. Nishiyama, T. Okano and J. Sugiyama, “Molecular Imaging of Halocynthia papillosa Cellulose,” Journal of Structural Biology, Vol. 124, No. 1, 1998, pp. 42-50. doi:10.1006/jsbi.1998.4045
[43] S. Kimura and T. Itoh, “Cellulose Synthesizing Terminal Complexes in the Ascidians,” Cellulose, Vol. 11, No. 3-4, 2004, pp. 377-383. doi:10.1023/B:CELL.0000046414.72903.33
[44] S. Iwamoto, W. H. Kai, A. Isogai and T. Iwata, “Elastic Modulus of Single Cellulose Microfibrils from Tunicate Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 10, No. 9, 2009, pp. 2571-2576. doi:10.1021/bm900520n
[45] J. F. Revol, “On the Cross-Sectional Shape of Cellulose Crystallites in Valonia ventricosa,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1982, pp. 123-134. doi:10.1016/0144-8617(82)90058-3
[46] J. Sugiyama, H. Harada, Y. Fujiyoshi and N. Uyeda, “Lattice Images from Ultrathin Sections of Cellulose Microfibrils in the Cell Wall of Valonia macrophysa Kütz,” Planta, Vol. 166, No. 2, 1985, pp. 161-168. doi:10.1007/BF00397343
[47] S. J. Hanley, J. Giasson, J. F. Revol and D. G. Gray, “Atomic Force Microscopy of Cellulose Microfibrils: Comparison with Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Polymer, Vol. 33, No. 21, 1992, pp. 4639-4642. doi:10.1016/0032-3861(92)90426-W
[48] N. H. Kim, W. Herth, R. Vuong and H. Chanzy, “The Cellulose System in the Cell Wall of Micrasterias,” Journal of Structural Biology, Vol. 117, No. 3, 1996, pp. 195-203. doi:10.1006/jsbi.1996.0083
[49] S. J. Hanley, J. F. Revol, L. Godbout and D. G. Gray, “Atomic Force Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy of Cellulose from Micrasterias denticulata; Evidence for a Chiral Helical Microfibril Twist,” Cellulose, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1997, pp. 209-220. doi:10.1023/A:1018483722417
[50] T. Imai and J. Sugiyama, “Nanodomains of I-Alpha and I-Beta Cellulose in Algal Microfibrils,” Macromolecules, Vol. 31, No. 18, 1998, pp. 6275-6279. doi:10.1021/ma980664h
[51] H. Yamamoto and F. Horii, “In Situ crystallization of Bacterial Cellulose I. Influences of Polymeric Additives, Stirring and Temperature on the Formation Celluloses Iα and Iβ as Revealed by Cross Polarization/Magic Angle Spinning (CP/MAS)13C NMR Spectroscopy,” Cellulose, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1994, pp. 57-66. doi:10.1007/BF00818798
[52] C. Tokoh, K. Takabe, M. Fujita and H. Saiki, “Cellulose Synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum in the Presence of Acetyl Glucomannan,” Cellulose, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1998, pp. 249-261. doi:10.1023/A:1009211927183
[53] T. Koshizawa, “Investigation on Dissolving Pulp. XIV. Some Behavior of Wood Pulp and Cotton Linters in Phosphoric Acid,” Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, Vol. 31, No. 6, 1958, pp.705-708. doi:10.1246/bcsj.31.705
[54] T. Okano, S. Kuga, M. Wada, J. Araki and J. Ikuina, JP 98/151052, Nisshin Oil Mills Ltd., Japan, 1999.
[55] H. Ono, T. Matsui and I. Miyamato, WO98/JP5462, Japan, 1999.
[56] P. B. Filson and B. E. Dawson-Andoh, “Sono-Chemical Preparation of Cellulose Nanocrystals from Lignocellulose Derived Materials,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 100, No. 7, 2009, pp. 2259-2264. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.09.062
[57] J. Araki, M. Wada, S. Kuga and T. Okano, “Flow Properties of Microcrystalline Cellulose Suspension Prepared by Acid Treatment of Native Cellulose,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 142, No. 1, 1998, pp. 75-82. doi:10.1016/S0927-7757(98)00404-X
[58] J. F. Revol, H. Bradford, J. Giasson, R. H. Marchessault and D. G. Gray, “Helicoidal Self-Ordering of Cellulose Microfibrils in Aqueous Suspension,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1992, pp. 170-172. doi:10.1016/S0141-8130(05)80008-X
[59] M. Roman and W. T. Winter, “Effect of Sulfate Groups from Sulfuric Acid Hydrolysis on the Thermal Degradation Behaviour of Bacterial Cellulose,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 5, No. 5, 2004, pp.1671-1677. doi:10.1021/bm034519+
[60] N. Wang, E. Ding and R. Cheng, “Thermal Degradation Behaviors of Spherical Cellulose Nanocrystals with Sulfate Groups,” Polymer, Vol. 48, No. 12, 2007, pp. 34863493. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2007.03.062
[61] O. A. Battista and P. A. Smith, “Level-Off Degree of Polymerization Cellulose Products,” US Patent No. 2, 978, 446, 1961.
[62] O. A. Battista and P. A. Smith, “Crystallite Cellulosic Aggregates Prepared in an Acid Medium,” US Patent No. 3,141,875, 1964.
[63] O. A. Battista and J. J. Jr. Byrne, “Cellulose Crystallite Aggregates in Chromatographic Adsorption,” US Patent No. 3,179,587, 1965.
[64] X. M. Dong, J. F. Revol and D. G. Gray, “Effect of Microcrystallite Preparation Conditions on the Formation of Colloid Crystals of Cellulose,” Cellulose, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1998, pp. 19-32. doi:10.1023/A:1009260511939
[65] J. Araki, M. Wada, S. Kuga and T. Okano, “Birefringent Glassy Phase of a Cellulose Microcrystal Suspension,” Langmuir, Vol. 16, No. 6, 2000, pp. 2413-2415. doi:10.1021/la9911180
[66] Y. Habibi, A. Goffin, N. Schiltz, E. Duquesne, P. Dubois and A. Dufresne, “Bionanocomposites Based on Poly (ε-caprolactone)-Grafted Cellulose Nanocrystals by RingOpening Polymerisation,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 18, No. 41, 2008, pp. 5002-5010. doi:10.1039/b809212e
[67] Y. Habibi, L. Foulon, V. Aguié-Béghin, M. Molinari and R. Douillard, “Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Cellulose Nanocrystals: Preparation and Characterisation,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 316, No. 2, 2007, pp. 388-397. doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2007.08.041
[68] X. Cao, Y. Chen, P. R. Chang, M. Stumborg and M. A. Huneault, “Green Composites Reinforced with Hemp Nanocrystals in Plasticized Starch,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 109, No. 6, 2008, pp. 3804-3810. doi:10.1002/app.28418
[69] X. Cao, Y. Chen, P. R. Chang, A. D. Muir and G. Falk, “Starch-Based Nanocomposites Reinforced with Flax Cellulose Nanocrystals,” Express Polymer Letters, Vol. 2, No. 7, 2008, pp. 502-510. doi:10.3144/expresspolymlett.2008.60
[70] X. Cao, H. Dong and C. M. Li, “New Nanocomposite Materials Reinforced with Flax Cellulose Nanocrystals in Waterborne Polyurethane,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2007, pp. 899-904. doi:10.1021/bm0610368
[71] A. Bendahou, Y. Habibi, H. Kaddami and A. Dufresne, “Physico-Chemical Characterization of Palm from Phoenix Dactylifera-L, Preparation of Cellulose Whiskers and Natural Rubber-Based Nanocomposites,” Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2009, pp. 81-90. doi:10.1166/jbmb.2009.1011
[72] J. Araki, M. Wada, S. Kuga and T. Okano, “Influence of Surface Charge on Viscosity Behavior of Cellulose Microcrystal Suspension,” Journal of Wood Science, Vol. 45, No. 3, 1999, pp. 258-261. doi:10.1007/BF01177736
[73] M. Roohani, Y. Habibi, N. M. Belgacem, G. Ebrahim, A. N. Karimi and A. Dufresne, “Cellulose Whiskers Reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol Copolymers Nanocomposites,” European Polymer Journal, Vol. 44, No. 8, 2008, pp. 2489-2498. doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2008.05.024
[74] X. Cao, Y. Habibi and L. A. Lucia, “One-Pot Polymerization, Surface Grafting, and Processing of Waterborne Polyurethane-Cellulose Nanocrystal Nanocomposites,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 19, No. 38, 2009, pp. 7137-7145. doi:10.1039/b910517d
[75] J. R. Capadona, K. Shanmuganathan, S. Trittschuh, S. Seidel, S. J. Rowan and C. Weder, “Polymer Nanocomposites with Nanowhiskers Isolated from Microcrystalline Cellulose,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2009, pp. 712-716. doi:10.1021/bm8010903
[76] D. Bondeson, I. Kvien and K. Oksman, “In Cellulose Nanocomposites: Processing, Characterization, and Properties,” In: K. Oksman and M. Sain, Eds., ACS Symposium Series 938, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 2006.
[77] M. A. S. A. Samir, F. Alloin, M. Paillet and A. Dufresne, “Tangling Effect in Fibrillated Cellulose Reinforced Nanocomposites,” Macromolecules, Vol. 37, No. 11, 2004, pp. 4313-4316. doi:10.1021/ma035939u
[78] M. Grunert and W. T. Winter, “Nanocomposites of Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Reinforced with Cellulose Nanocrystals,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 27-30. doi:10.1023/A:1021065905986
[79] J. Araki and S. Kuga, “Effect of Trace Electrolyte on Liquid Crystal Type of Cellulose Microcrystals,” Langmuir, Vol. 17, No. 15, 2001, pp. 4493-4496. doi:10.1021/la0102455
[80] A. Hirai, O. Inui, F. Horii and M. Tsuji, “Phase Separation Behavior in Aqueous Suspensions of Bacterial Cellulose Nanocrystals Prepared by Sulfuric Acid Treatment,” Langmuir, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2009, pp.497-502. doi:10.1021/la802947m
[81] M. N. Angles and A. Dufresne, “Plasticized Starch/Tuni cin Whiskers Nanocomposites: 1. Structural Analysis,” Macromolecules, Vol. 33, No. 22, 2000, pp. 8344-8353. doi:10.1021/ma0008701
[82] H. Angelier, L. Choisnard, S. Molina-Boisseau, P. Ozil and A. Dufresne, “Optimization of the Preparation of Aqueous Suspensions of Waxy Maize Starch Nanocrystals Using a Response Surface Methodology,” Bio-macromolecules, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2004, pp.1545-1550. doi:10.1021/bm049914u
[83] C. Xuerong and C. Yandan, “Method for Preparing Nanocrystal Cellulose I by Applying Acid Cation Exchange Resin,” CN101759807A, 2010.
[84] H. Ishikawa, S. Ide and C. Kawamata, “Manufacture of Microfibrillated Cellulose Fibers,” JP92-165820, 5, 1994.
[85] H. Shibuya and T. Hayashi, “Manufacture of Cellulose Nanofibers by Enzymatic Treatment and Cellulose Nanofibers Manufactured Thereby,” JP2006-337350, 13, 2008.
[86] H. Yano, N. Seki and T. Ishida, “Manufacture of Nanofibers and nanofibers manufactured thereby,” JP2007-2229, 17, 2008.
[87] M. Ankerfors, T. Lindstrom and G. Henriksson, “Method for Treating Chemical Pulp for Manufacturing Micro-Fibrillated,” US20090221812, 2009.
[88] M. Vehvilaeinen, T. Kamppuri, M. Peltola, et al., “Process for Producing Microfibrillated Cellulose,” WO2011 004300A1, 2011.
[89] I. Heiskanen, K. Backfolk, M. Vehviläinen, et al., “Process for the Production of Microfibrillated Cellulose and Produced Microfibrillated Cellulose,” WO2011004284, 2011.
[90] G. Henriksson, A. Nut, H. Henriksson, B. Pettersson, J. Stahlberg, G. Johansson and G. Pettersson, “Endoglucanase 28 (Cel12a), A New Phanerochaete Chrysosporium Cellulase,” European Journal of Biochemistry, Vol. 259, No. 1-2, 1999, pp. 88-95. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999.00011.x
[91] G. Henriksson, M. Christiernin and R. Agnemo, “Monocomponent Endoglucanase Treatment Increases the Reactivity of Softwood Sulfite Dissolving Pulp,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 32, No. 5, 2005, pp. 211-214. doi:10.1007/s10295-005-0220-7
[92] E. R. Berghem and L. G. Pettersson, “Mechanism of Enzymatic Cellulose Degradation-Purification of A Cellulolytic Enzyme from Trichoderma-Viride Active on Highly Ordered Cellulose,” European Journal of Biochemistry, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1973, pp. 21-30. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1973.tb02952.x
[93] A. Lopez-Rubio, J. M. Lagaron, M. Ankerfors, T. Lindström, D. Nordqvist, A. Mattozzi and M. S. Hedenqvist, “Enhanced Film Forming and Film Properties of Amylopectin Using Micro-Fibrillated Cellulose,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 68, No. 4, 2007, pp. 718-727. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2006.08.008
[94] A. J. Svagan, M. A. S. A. Samir and L. A. Berglund, “Biomimetic Polysaccharide Nanocomposites of High Cellulose Content and High Toughness,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 8, No. 8, 2007, pp. 2556-2563. doi:10.1021/bm0703160
[95] P. B. Filson, B. Dawson-Andoh and D. Schwegler-Berry, “Enzymatic-Mediated Production of Cellulose Nanocrystals from Recycled Pulp,” Green Chemistry, Vol. 11, No. 11, 2009, pp. 1808-1814. doi:10.1039/b915746h
[96] T. Saito and A. Isogai, “Introduction of Aldehyde Groups on Surfaces of Native Cellulose Fibers by TEMPO-Mediated Oxidation,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 289, No.1-3, 2006, pp. 219-225. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.04.038
[97] T. Saito, S. Kimura, Y. Nishiyama and A. Isogai, “Cellulose Nanofibers Prepared by TEMPO-Mediated Oxidation of Native Cellulose,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 8, No. 8, 2007, pp. 2485-2491. doi:10.1021/bm0703970
[98] T. Saito, M. Hirota, N. Tamura, S. Kimura, H. Fukuzumi, L. Heux and A. Isogai, “Individualization of Nano-Sized Plant Cellulose Fibrils by Direct Surface Carboxylation Using TEMPO Catalyst under Neutral Conditions,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 10, No. 7, 2009, pp. 1992-1996. doi:10.1021/bm900414t
[99] Y. Habibi and M. Vignon, “Optimization of Cellouronic Acid Synthesis by TEMPO-Mediated Oxidation of Cellulose III from Sugar Beet Pulp,” Cellulose, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2008, pp. 177-185. doi:10.1007/s10570-007-9179-z
[100] J. Araki, M. Wada and S. Kuga, “Steric Stabilization of A Cellulose Microcrystal Suspension by Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Grafting,” Langmuir, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2001, pp. 2127.
[101] J. Engelhard, S. Ficher, K. Hettrich, et al., “Nanoparticles of Slightly Oxidized Cellulose,” WO2009021688A1, 2009.
[102] S. Miyawaki, S. Katsukawa, H. Abe, et al., “Process for Producing Cellulose Nanofibers,” WO2010116826A1, 2010.
[103] S. Miyawaki, S. Katsukawa, H. Abe, et al., “Process for Producing Cellulose Nanofibers, Cellulose Oxidation Catalysts and Methods for Oxidizing Cellulose,” US2010 282422A1, 2010.
[104] M. Frey and Y. L. Joo, “Cellulose Solution in Novel Solvent and Electrospinning Thereof,” US2005247236A1, 2005.
[105] M. H. F. Godinho, J. P. H. G. Canejo, J. P. M. R. Borges, et al., “Nanofibras Celulósicas Obtida por Electrospinning a Partir de SoluçÕes Liquidas,” PT104094A, 2010.
[106] T. Christoforou and C. Doumanidis, “Biodegradable Cellulose Acetate Nanofiber Fabrication via Electrospinning,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vol. 10, No. 9, 2010, pp. 6226-6233. doi:10.1166/jnn.2010.2577
[107] A. N. Nakagaito and H. Yano, “Novel High-Strength Biocomposites Based on Microfibrillated Cellulose Having nanoorder-Unit Web-Like Network Structure,” Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing, Vol. 80, No. 1, 2005, pp. 155-159. doi:10.1007/s00339-003-2225-2
[108] P. Stenstad, M. Andresen, B. S. Tanem and P. Stenius, “Chemical Surface Modifications of Microfibrillated Cellulose,” Cellulose, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2008, pp. 35-45. doi:10.1007/s10570-007-9143-y
[109] A. N. Nakagaito and H. Yano, “The Effect of Morphological Changes from Pulp Fiber Towards Nano-Scale Fibrillated Cellulose on the Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Plant Fiber Based Composites,” Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing, Vol. 78, No. 4, 2004, pp. 547-552. doi:10.1007/s00339-003-2453-5
[110] M. Shigematsu, “Fibrillar Cellulose and Its Production,” JP2000017592A, 2000
[111] I. Hiroshyokota and O. Yoshiaki, “Homogenization of Microcrystalline Cellulose Suspension,” JP59120638A, 1984.
[112] T. Zimmermann, E. Pohler and T. Geiger, “Cellulose Fibrils for Polymer Reinforcement,” Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 6, No. 9, 2004, pp. 754-761. doi:10.1002/adem.200400097
[113] T. LindstrÖm, “Towards New Perspectives in Paper Chemistry,” Das Papier IPW, Vol. 10, 2007, pp. 3236.
[114] S. Beck, J. Bouchard and R. Berry, “Control of Nanocrystalline Cellulose Film Iridescence Wavelength,” US 20100279019, 2010.
[115] C. Peng, C. Wenshuai, H. Yunfei, et al., “Preparation Method of Homogenized Fine Nano-Cellulose Fiber,” CN 101851295A, 2010.
[116] C. Peng, C. Wenshuai, L. Yixing, et al., “Method for Preparing Nanometer Cellulose Fiber through Combining Ultrasound and Highpressure Homogenization Treatment,” CN101851801A, 2010.
[117] J. Paltakari, J. Laine, M. Österberg, et al., “A Method for Producing Modified Cellulose,” WO2010092239A1, 2010.
[118] P. A. C. Gane, J. Schoelkopf, D. Gantenbein, et al., “Process for the Production of Nano-Fibrillar Cellulose Gels,” WO2010115785A1, 2010.
[119] M. Ankerfors and T. Lindstrom, “Method for Providing Nanocellulose Involving Modifying Cellulose Fibers,” US20110036522A1, 2011.
[120] T. Taniguchi and K. Okamura, “New Films Produced from Microfibrillated Natural Fibres,” Polymer International, Vol. 47, No. 3, 1998, pp. 291-294, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0126(199811)47:3<291::AID-PI11>3.0.CO;2-1
[121] K. Abe, S. Iwamoto and H. Yano, “Obtaining Cellulose Nanofibers with a Uniform Width of 15 nm From Wood,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 8, No. 10, 2007, pp. 3276-3278 doi:10.1021/bm700624p
[122] S. Iwamoto, A. N. Nakagaito, H. Yano and M. Nogi, “Optically Transparent Composites Reinforced with Plant Fiber-Based Nanofibers,” Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing, Vol. 81, No. 6, 2005, pp. 11091112. doi:10.1007/s00339-005-3316-z
[123] S. Iwamoto, A. N. Nakagaito and H. Yano, “Nano-Fibrillation of Pulp Fibers for the Processing of Transparent Nanocomposites,” Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing, Vol. 89, No. 2, 2007, pp. 461-466. doi:10.1007/s00339-007-4175-6
[124] A. Chakraborty, M. Sain and M. Kortschot, “Cellulose Microfibrils: A Novel Method of Preparation Using High Shear Refining and Cryocrushing,” Holzforschung, Vol. 59, No. 1, 2005, pp. 102-107. doi:10.1515/HF.2005.016
[125] B. Wang and M. Sain, “Dispersion of Soybean StockBased Nanofiber in a Plastic Matrix,” Polymer International, Vol. 56, No. 4, 2007, pp. 538-546. doi:10.1002/pi.2167
[126] A. Bhatnagar and M. Sain, “Processing of Cellulose Nanofiberreinforced Composites,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol. 24, No. 12, 2005, pp. 12591268. doi:10.1177/0731684405049864
[127] M. M. de Souza Lima, J. T. Wong, M. Paillet, R. Borsali and R. Pecora, “Translational and Rotational Dynamics of Rodlike Cellulose Whiskers,” Langmuir, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2003, pp. 24-29. doi:10.1021/la020475z
[128] C. Rondeau-Mouro, B. Bouchet, B. Pontoire, P. Robert, J. Mazoyer and A. Buleon, “Structural Features and Potential Texturizing Properties of Lemon and Maize Cellulose Microfibrils,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 53, 2003, pp. 241252. doi:10.1016/S0144-8617(03)00069-9
[129] L. Mott, L. Groom and S. Shaler, “Mechanical Properties of Individual Southern Pine Fibers. Part II. Comparison of Earlywood and Latewood Fibers with Respect to Tree Height and Juvenility,” Wood and Fiber Science, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2002, pp. 221-237.
[130] S. J. Eichhorn, J. Sirichaisit and R. J. Young, “Deformation Mechanisms in Cellulose Fibres, Paper and Wood,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 36, No. 13, 2001, pp. 3129-3135. doi:10.1023/A:1017969916020
[131] S. J. Eichhorn and R. J. Young, “The Young’s Modulus of a Microcrystalline Cellulose,” Cellulose, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2001, pp. 197-207. doi:10.1023/A:1013181804540
[132] R. R. Lahiji, X. Xu, R. Reifenberger, A. Raman, A. Rudie and R. J. Moon, “Atomic Force Microscopy Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals,” Langmuir, 2010, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 4480-4488. doi:10.1021/la903111j
[133] R. Rusli and S. J. Eichhorn, “Determination of the Stiffness of Cellulose Nanowhiskers and the Fiber-Matrix Interface in a Nanocomposite Using Raman Spectroscopy,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 3, 2008, Article ID: 033111. doi:10.1063/1.2963491
[134] A. Sturcova, G. R. Davies and S. J. Eichhorn, “Elastic Modulus and Stress-Transfer Properties of Tunicate Cellulose Whiskers,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2005, pp. 1055-1061. doi:10.1021/bm049291k
[135] Y. C. Hsieh, H. Yano, M. Nogi and S. J. Eichhorn, “An Estimation of the Young’s Modulus of Bacterial Cellulose Filaments,” Cellulose, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2008, pp. 507513. doi:10.1007/s10570-008-9206-8
[136] T. Nishino, I. Matsuda and K. Hirao, “All-Cellulose Composite,” Macromolecules, Vol. 37, No. 20, 2004, pp. 7683-7687. doi:10.1021/ma049300h
[137] H. Yano, J. Sugiyama, A. N. Nakagaito, M. Nogi, T. Matsuura, M. Hikita and K. Handa, “Optically Transparent Composites Reinforced with Networks of Bacterial Nanofibers,” Advanced Materials, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2005, pp. 153-155. doi:10.1002/adma.200400597
[138] A. N. Nakagaito, M. Nogi and H. Yano, “Displays from Transparent Films of Natural Nanofibers,” MRS Bulletin, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2010, pp. 214-218. doi:10.1557/mrs2010.654
[139] E. Lasseuguette, D. Roux and Y. Nishiyama, “Rheological Properties of Microfibrillar Suspension of TEMPOOxidized Pulp,” Cellulose, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2008, pp. 425433. doi:10.1007/s10570-007-9184-2
[140] S. Spoljaric, A. Genovese and R. A. Shanks, “Polypropylene-Microcrystalline Cellulose Composites with Enhanced Compatibility and Properties,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 40, No. 6-7, 2009, pp. 791-799. doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2009.03.011
[141] S. Padalkar, J. R. Capadona, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, Y. H. Won, L. A. Stanciu and R. J. Moon, “Natural Biopolymers: Novel Templates for the Synthesis of Nanostructures,” Langmuir, Vol. 26, No. 11, 2010, pp. 8497-8502. doi:10.1021/la904439p
[142] L. Heux, G. Chauve and C. Bonini, “Nonflocculating and Chiral-Nematic Self-Ordering of Cellulose Microcrystals Suspensions in Nonpolar Solvents,” Langmuir, Vol. 16, No. 21, 2000, pp.8210-8212. doi:10.1021/la9913957
[143] L. Heux, and C. Bonini, “Microfibrillated and/or Micrcroystalline Dispersion, in Particular of Cellulose, in an Organic Solvent,” International Patent WO 2000/077088, 2000.
[144] E. D. Cranston and D. G. Gray, “Morphological and Optical Characterization of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Incorporating Nanocrystalline Cellulose,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 7, No. 9, 2006, pp. 2522-2530. doi:10.1021/bm0602886
[145] C. Goussé, H. Chanzy, G. Excoffier, L. Soubeyrand and E. Fleury, “Stable Suspensions of Partially Silylated Cellulose Whiskers Dispersed in Organic Solvents,” Polymer, Vol. 43, No. 9, 2002, pp. 2645-2651. doi:10.1016/S0032-3861(02)00051-4
[146] Y. Habibi, H. Chanzy and M. Vignon, “TEMPO-Mediated Surface Oxidation of Cellulose Whiskers,” Cellulose, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 679-687. doi:10.1007/s10570-006-9075-y
[147] M. Hasani, E. D. Cranston, G. Westman and D. G. Gray, “Cationic Surface Functionalisation of Cellulose Nanocrystals,” Soft Matter, Vol. 4, No. 11, 2008, pp. 2238-2244. doi:10.1039/b806789a
[148] B. Braun and J. R. Dorgan, “Single-Step Method for the Isolation and Surface Functionalisation of Cellulosic Nanowhiskers,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2009, pp. 334-341. doi:10.1021/bm8011117
[149] G. Morandi, L. Heath and W. Thielemans, “Cellulose Nanocrystals Grafted With Polystyrene Chains through Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation (SI-ATRP),” Langmuir, Vol. 25, No. 14, 2009, pp. 82808286. doi:10.1021/la900452a
[150] J. Sassi and H. Chanzy, “Ultrastructural Aspects of the Acetylation of Cellulose,” Cellulose, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1995, pp. 111-127. doi:10.1007/BF00816384
[151] H. Yuan, Y. Nishiyama, M. Wada and S. Kuga, “Surface Acylation of Cellulose Whiskers by Drying Aqueous Emulsion,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2006, pp. 696-700. doi:10.1021/bm050828j
Follow SCIRP Home About SCIRP Service Policies
Journals A-Z Journals by Subject Manuscript Tracking System Open Access
Books For Authors Translation & Proofreading Publication Ethics
Jobs Publication Fees Careers Preservation
Blog Special Issues Subscription Retraction
Sitemap Peer-Review Resources Frequently Asked Questions Advertising
Contact Us News Volume & Issue Privacy Policy
Copyright © 2006-2020 Scientific Research Publishing Inc. All Rights Reserved.