Monitoring Bridge Deformation Using Auto-Correlation Adjustment Technique for Total Station Observations


Bridges are omnipresent in every society and they affect its human, social, ecological, economical and cultural aspects. This is why a durable and safe usage of bridges is an imperative goal of structural management. Measurement and monitoring have an essential role in structural management. The benefits of the information obtained by monitoring are apparent in several domains. In deformation analysis, the functional relationship between the acting forces and the resulting deformations should be established. If time depending observations are given, a regression could be used as a functional model. In case of stochastic model uncorrelated observations with identical variance are assumed. Due to the high sampling rate, a small time difference arises between two observations. Thus the assumed stochastic model is not suitable. The calculation has to be effected by means of auto-correlated observations. This paper investigates an integrated monitoring system for the estimation of the deformation (i.e., static, quasi-static) behavior of bridges from total station observations and studies the effect of autocorrelation technique on the accuracy of the estimated parameters and variances. The results have shown that autocorrelation technique is reduced the standard deviation of X&Y-direction about 6.7% to 29.4% and 6.5% to 15.5% of the original value, respectively, but the situation was differ in Z direction; the standard deviation in vertical component Z was increased.

Share and Cite:

Beshr, A. and Kaloop, M. (2013) Monitoring Bridge Deformation Using Auto-Correlation Adjustment Technique for Total Station Observations. Positioning, 4, 1-7. doi: 10.4236/pos.2013.41001.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] [1] A. Beshr, “Accurate Surveying Measurements for Smart Structural Members,” MS. Thesis, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura, 2004.
[2] G. Roberts, E. Cosser, X. Meng, A. Dodson, A. Morris and M. Meo, “A Remote Bridge Health Monitoring System Using Computational Simulation and Single Frequency GPS Data,” Proceedings of 11th FIG Symposium on Deformation Measurements, Santorini, 25-28 May 2003.
[3] V. Gikas, “Ambient Vibration Monitoring of Slender Structures by Microwave Interferometer Remote Sensing,” Journal of Applied Geodesy, Vol. 6, No. 3-4, 2012, pp. 167-176. doi:10.1515/jag-2012-0029
[4] D. Li, “Sensor Placement Methods and Evaluation Criteria in Structural Health Monitoring,” Ph.D. Thesis, Universitat Siegen, Siegen, 2011.
[5] S. Stiros and P. Psimoulis, “Response of a Historical Short-Span Railway Bridge to Passing Trails: 3-D Deflections and Dominant Frequencies Derived from Robotic Total Station (RTS) Measurements,” Engineering Structures, Vol. 45, 2012, pp. 362-371. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.06.029
[6] V. Zarikas, V. Gikas and C. P. Kitsos, “Evaluation of the Optimal Design ‘Cosinor Model’ for Enhancing the Potential of Robotic Theodolite Kinematic Observations,” Measurement, Vol. 43, No. 10, 2010, pp. 1416-1424. doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2010.08.006
[7] M. Kaloop, A. Beshr and M. Elshiekh, “Using Total Station for Monitoring the Deformation of High Strength Concrete Beams,” 6th International Conference on Vibration Engineering (ICVE’2008), Dalian, 4-6 June 2008, pp. 411-419.
[8] A. Beshr, “Monitoring the Structural Deformation of Tanks,” Lambert Academic Publication, Germany, 2012.
[9] N. Elsheimy, “ENGO 361 Course of Least Square Estimation,” University of Calgary, Calgary, 2001.
[10] M. Kaloop, “Bridge Safety Monitoring Based-GPS Technique: Case Study Zhujiang Huangpu Bridge,” Smart Structures and Systems, Vol. 9, No. 6, 2012, pp. 473-487
[11] E. Mikhail and G. Gracie, “Analysis and Adjustment of Survey Measurements,” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1981.
[12] P. Stella, A. Villy and C.S tathis, “Analysis of the Geodetic Monitoring Record of the Ladhon Dam,” FIG Working Week, Athens, 22-27 May 2004
[13] H. Kuhlmann, “Importance of Autocorrelation for Parameter Estimation in Regression Models,” The 10th FIG International Symposium on Deformation Measurements, Orange, 19-22 March 2001.
[14] SPSS. Inc., “Version 10.0.5,” Chicago, 1999.
[15] J. Schroedel, “Engineering and Design Structure Deformation Surveying,” CECWEE Manual No. 1110-2-1009, Department of the Army, US Army Crops of Engineering, Washington DC, 2002.

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.