Urea Amperometric Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Polypyrrole and Poly Ortho-Phenylenediamine

DOI: 10.4236/ojab.2013.21002   PDF   HTML   XML   4,579 Downloads   8,762 Views   Citations


Urea Amperometric biosensor was obtained on the base of nanostructured polypyrrole (PPy) and poly ortho- phenylenediamine (POPDA). The optimal conditions for monomer electropolymerization were determined. The effect of supporting electrolyte and number of deposition cycles on the OPDA and Py electropolymerization were studied. It was proved that POPDA and PPy were affected by pH changes and responded to the ammonium, product of urease catalyzed reaction. SEM images of the modified Pt/PPy electrode were presented. The cycle voltammograms and chrono amperometric curves of Pt/POPDA/urease and Pt/PPy/urease electrodes were studied. A good linear relationship was observed for Pt/POPDA/urease electrode in a concentration range from 6.7 to 54 mMurea. For Pt/PPy/urease electrode the linear relation in the range from 0.02 to0.16 mMurea was determined. The entrapped carbon nanotubes (CNT) in PPy film and the bipolymer layers were prepared for construction of Pt/PPy/CNT/urease, Pt/POPDA/PPy/urease and Pt/PPy/POPDA/urease biosensors. Obviously, the addition of POPDA to the composition of the two biosensors (Pt/PPy/POPDA/urease and Pt/POPDA/PPy/urease) reduced their sensitivity to urea. Pt/РPy/CNT/urease and Pt/РPy/ urease biosensors were 173 and 138 times more sensitive to urea than biosensor without PPy (Pt/POPDA/urease biosensor). It was found, that the performance of Pt/PPy/CNT/urease electrode was the best from the five obtained biosensors: linear range of urea concentrations—from 0.02 to0.16 mM; sensitivity—15.22 μA/mM and detection limit— 0.005 mM urea.

Share and Cite:

Ivanova, S., Ivanov, Y. and Godjevargova, T. (2013) Urea Amperometric Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Polypyrrole and Poly Ortho-Phenylenediamine. Open Journal of Applied Biosensor, 2, 12-19. doi: 10.4236/ojab.2013.21002.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] B. Gupta, S. Singh, S. Mohan and R. Prakash, “Urea Biosensor based on Conducting Polymer Transducers,” In: P. A. Serra, Ed., Biosensors, InTech, Rijeka, 2010, p. 302.
[2] J. C. Vidal, S. MeAndez and J. R. Castillo, “Electropolymerization of Pyrrole and Phenylenediamine over an Organic Conducting Salt Based Amperometric Sensor of Increased Selectivity for Glucose Determination,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 385, No. 1-3, 1999, pp. 203- 211. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(98)00837-X
[3] S. Vishwanath, J. Wang, L. G. Bachas, D. A. Butterfield and D. Bhattacharyya, “Site-Directed and Random Immobilization of Subtilisin on Functionalized Membranes: Activity Determination in Aqueous and Organic Media,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 60, No. 5, 1998, pp. 608-616. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0290(19981205)6
[4] Y. Yao and K. K. Shiu, “Electron-Transfer Properties of Different Carbon Nanotube Materials, and Their Use in Glucose Biosensors,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 387, No. 1, 2007, pp. 303-309. doi:10.1007/s00216-006-0924-1
[5] J. C. Soares, A. Brisolari, V. C. Rodrigues, E. A. Sanches and D. Goncalves, “Amperometric Urea Biosensors Based on the Entrapment of Urease in Polypyrrole Films,” Reactive and Functional Polymers, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2012, pp. 148-152. doi:10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2011.12.002
[6] M. P. Massafera and S. I. C. Torresi, “Urea Amperometric Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Polypyrrole,” Electroanalysis, Vol. 23, No. 11, 2011, pp. 2534-2540. doi:10.1002/elan.201100239
[7] S. B. Adeloju, S. J. Shaw and G. G. Wallace, “Polypyrrole-Based Amperometric Flow Injection Biosensor for Urea,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 323, No. 1-3, 1996, pp. 107-113. doi:10.1016/0003-2670(95)00562-5
[8] S. Adeloju, S. Shaw and G. Wallace, “Pulsed-Amperometric Detection of Urea in Blood Samples on a Conducting Polypyrrole-Urease Biosensor,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 341, No. 2-3, 1997, pp. 155-160. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(96)00502-8
[9] M. P. Massafera and S. I. C. de Torresi, “Urea Amperometric Biosensors Based on a Multifunctional Bipolymeric Layer: Comparing Enzyme Immobilization Methods,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 137, No. 2, 2009, pp. 476-482. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2009.02.013
[10] M. Stred’anskya, A. Pizzariello, S. Stred’anská and S. Miertus, “Amperometric pH-Sensing Biosensors for Urea, Penicillin, and Oxalacetate,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 415, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 151-157. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(00)00869-2
[11] D. Chirizzi and C. Malitesta, “Potentiometric Urea Biosensor Based on Urease Immobilized by an Electrosynthesized Poly (o-Phenylenediamine) Film with Buffering Capability,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 157, No. 1, 2011, pp. 211-215. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2011.03.051
[12] F. Branzoi, V. Branzoi and A. Musina, “Amperometric Urea Biosensor Based on Platinum Electrode Modified with a Nanocomposite Film,” Surface and Interface Analysis, Vol. 44, No. 8, 2012, pp. 895-898. doi:10.1002/sia.4861
[13] J. Wang and M. Musameh, “Carbon-Nanotubes Doped Polypyrrole Glucose Biosensor,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 539, 2005, No. 1-2, pp. 209-213. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2005.02.059
[14] G. Gustafsson, I. Lundstrom, B. Liedberg, C. R. Wu and O. Inganas, “The Interaction between Ammonia and Poly (Pyrrole),” Synthetic Metals, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1989, pp. 163-179. doi:10.1016/0379-6779(89)90812-6
[15] M. Vidotti, L. H. Dall’Antonia, E. P. Cintra and S. I. C. Torresi, “Reduction of Interference Signal of Ascorbate and Urate in Poly(Pyrrole)-Based Ammonia Sensors in Aqueous Solutions,” Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 49, No. 22-23, 2004, pp. 3665-3670. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2003.11.034
[16] V. Branzoi, F. Golgovicia and F. Branzoi, “Electronically Conductive Polymers Type Polypyrrole and Polyaniline Obtained by Electropolymerization onto Aluminium Substrate,” Revue Roumaine de Chimie, Vol. 53, No. 7, 2008, pp. 553-561. http://revroum.getion.ro/wp-content/uploads/2008/RRCh_7_2008/Art%2007.pdf
[17] W.-J. Cho and H.-J. Huang, “An Amperometric Urea Biosensor Based on a Polyaniline-Perfluorosulfonated Ionomer Composite Electrode,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 18, 1998, pp. 3946-3951. doi:10.1021/ac980004a
[18] X. Wang, H. Watanabe, N. Sekioka, H. Hamana and S. Uchiyama, “Amperometric Urea Biosensor Using Aminated Glassy Carbon Electrode Covered with Urease Immobilized Carbon Sheet, Based on the Electrode Oxidation of Carbamic Acid,” Electroanalysis, Vol. 19, No. 12, 2007, pp. 1300-1306. doi:10.1002/elan.200603853
[19] P. P. Mishra, “Conducting Polymer-Coated Enzyme Microsensor for Urea,” Analyst, Vol. 113, No. 2, 1988, pp. 329-331. doi:10.1039/an9881300329
[20] Rajesh, V. Bisht, W. Takashima and K. Kaneto, “An Amperometric Urea Biosensor Based on Covalent Immobilization of Urease onto an Electrochemically Prepared Copolymer Poly(N-3-aminopropyl pyrrole-co-pyrrole) Film,” Biomaterials, Vol. 26, No. 17, 2005, pp. 3683-3690. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2004.09.024

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.