Share This Article:

Chemical characterization of rainwater over Suwon region during farming and non-farming periods

DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2013.21001    3,066 Downloads   6,524 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Recently, special attention has been givento acid rain and its problem to environment such as acid precipitation and air pollution in East Asia.In the present study, rainwater samples werecollected from Apr to Oct (farming period) and from Nov to Mar (non-farming period) in 2009 ~ 2011. The samples were chemically characterized for the assessment of emission sources. Suwon region, a typical agricultural area in Gyeonggi province (South Korea) was chosen as a study site. The content of ionic species and theirtemporal variation were used forfactor analysis, which was used to presume the natural and anthropogenic sources depending upon the farming and non-farming periods. The cationsobserved during farming and non-farming periods were > Na+> Ca2+> K+> H+> Mg2+and Na+> N >Ca2+> H+= Mg2+> K+, respectively. The anions during farming and non-farming periods were > > Cl- and > > Cl-, respectively. While the amounts of sulfate, one of the major dissolved components of rainwater were 113.5 and 177.0 ueq.L-1, the ones of NSS- (Non-Sea Salt sulfate) were 93.7 and 87.1% during farming and non-farming periods, respectively. The comparison of observed pH values (pHobs) with the theoretical pH values (pHthe) showed that the neutralization of rainwater considerably went along during farming and non-farming periods. The highest amountof rainfall throughout the year was310.5 mmin August and its corre sponding nitrogen loading was5.03 kg·ha-1. The major ion contents for crop growth, , Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, were 49.4, 5.5, 18.1,1.4 kg·ha-1from April to October. The major contributions to the existing chemical ions in rainwaters during farming and non-farming periods were from the natural sources (sea and soil) and the anthropogenic sources (human and animal waste, vehicular emission + fossil fuels combustion), respectively.


Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

M. Kim, J. Lee, G. Jung, B. Ko, S. Kwon, M. Kim, K. So and S. Yun, "Chemical characterization of rainwater over Suwon region during farming and non-farming periods," Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2013, pp. 1-7. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2013.21001.

References

[1] Chudaeva, V.A., Urchenko, S.G., Chudaev, O.V., Sugimory, K., Matsuo, M. and Kuno, A. (2006) Chemistry of rainwaters in the south Pacific area of Russia. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 88, 101-105. doi:10.1016/j.gexplo.2005.08.020
[2] Wang, T.J., Jiang, F., Li, S. and Liu, Q. (2007) Trends in air pollution during 1996-2003 and cross-border transport in city clusters over the Yangtze River Delta Region of China. Journal of Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, 5, 995-1009. doi:10.3319/TAO.2007.18.5.995(A)
[3] Scorer, R.S. (1994) Long distance transport, acid rain. Gordon & Breach Science Publishers, New York.
[4] Cheng, M.C., You, C.F., Lin, F.J., Huang, K.F. and Chung, C.H. (2011) Sources of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in rainwater at a subtropical islet offshore northern Taiwan. Atmospheric Environment, 39, 6175-6183.
[5] Charron, A., Plaisance, H., Sauvage, S., Coddeville, P., Galloo, J.C. and Guillerm, R. (2000) A study of the source receptor relationships influencing the acidity of precipitation collected at a rural site in France. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 3665-3674. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00096-0
[6] Rinallo, C. (1992) Effects of acidity of simulated rain on the fruiting of “summerred” apple trees. Journal of Environmental Quality, 21, 61-68. doi:10.2134/jeq1992.00472425002100010009x
[7] Wang, C., Guo, P., Han, G., Feng, X., Zhang, P. and Tian, X. (2010) Effect of simulated acid rain on the litter decomposition of Quercus acutissima and Pinus massniana in forest soil microcosms and the relationship with soil enzyme activities. Science of the Total Environment, 408, 2706-2713. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.03.023
[8] Cronan, C.S. and Schofield, C.L. (1979) Aluminum leaching response to acid precipitation: Effects on high-elevation watersheds in the Northeast. Science, 204, 304- 306. doi:10.1126/science.204.4390.304
[9] Contardi, V., Franceschi, E., Bosia, S., Zanicchi, G., Palazzi, D., Cortessogno, L. and Gaggero, L. (2000) On the conservation of architectural artistic handwork of the “Pietra di Finale”. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 2, 83-90. doi:10.1016/S1296-2074(00)00159-X
[10] Okochi, H., Kameda, H., Hasegawa, S., Saito, N., Kubota, K. and Igawa, M. (2000) Determination of concrete structures by acid deposition—An assessment of the role of rainwater on deterioration by laboratory and field exposure experiments using mortar specimens. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 2937-2945. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00523-3
[11] Peart, M.R. (2000) Acid rain, storm period chemistry and their potential impact on stream communities in Hong Kong. Chemosphere, 41, 25-31. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00386-0
[12] Arsene, C., Olariu, R.I. and Mihalopoulos, N. (2007) Chemical composition of rainwater in the northeastern Romania, Iasi region (2003-2006). Atmospheric Research, 41, 9452-9467.
[13] Sakihama, H., Ishiki, M. and Tokuyama, A. (2008) Chemical characteristics of precipitation in NH3-affected areas. Atmospheric Environment, 22, 1689-1698.
[14] Ozeki, T., Ihara, T. and Ogawa, N. (2006) Study of pollutants in precipitation (rain and snow) transported long distance to west coasts of Japan Islands using oblique rotational factor analysis with partially non-negative constraint. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 82, 15-23. doi:10.1016/j.chemolab.2005.05.012
[15] Tu, J., Wang, H., Zhang, Z., Jin, X. and Li, W. (2005) Trends in chemical composition of precipitation in Nanjing, China, during 1992-2003. Atmospheric Research, 73, 283-293. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.11.002
[16] Kang, G.G., Collett, J.L., Shin, D.Y., Fujita, S.I. and Kim, H.K. (2004) Comparison of the chemical composition of precipitation on the western and eastern coasts of Korea. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 151, 11-34. doi:10.1023/B:WATE.0000009854.40334.da
[17] Ko, B.G., Kim, M.K., Lee, J.S., Kim, G.Y., Park, S.J. and Kwon, S.I., Jung, G.B. and Lee, D.B. (2010) Chemical properties and nutrient loadings of rainwater during farming season. Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, 43, 578-583.
[18] Lee, J.S., Jung Y.K. and Lee, K.S. (1999) Chemical composition of rainwater in Taean area. Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, 18, 204-208.
[19] Lee, J.S., Jung, G.B., Shin, J.D. and Kim, J.H. (2004) Chemical properties of rainwater in Suwon and Taean area during farming season. Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 6, 250-255.
[20] Lee, J.S., Kim, M.K., Park, S.J., Choi, C.M. and Jung, T.W. (2009) Neutralization of acidity and ionic composition of rainwater in Taean. Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, 42, 336-340.
[21] American Public Health Association (1995) Standard methods for the examination of water and waste, 20th Edition, Washington DC.
[22] Ministry of Environment (2008) Standard methods of water sampling and analysis. Ministry of Environment, Incheon.
[23] Christian, E.J. (1963) Air chemistry and radioactivity. Academic Press, England.
[24] Fujita, S.I., Takahashi, A., Weng, J.H., Huang, L.F., Kim, H.K., Li, C.K., Huang, F.T. and Jeng, F.T. (2000) Precipitation chemistry in East Asia. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 525-537. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00261-7
[25] Galloway, J.N., Zhao, D., Xiong, J. and Likens, G.E. (1987) Acid rain: China, United States, and a remote area. Science, 236, 1559-1562. doi:10.1126/science.236.4808.1559

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.