Share This Article:

Physical activity, weight status and diet in adolescents: are children meeting the guidelines

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1656KB) PP. 1142-1149
DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.210167    5,383 Downloads   10,838 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Childhood obesity is on the increase and maintaining regular physical activity and consuming a healthy diet have become essential tools to combat the condition. The United Kingdom government has recommended guidelines for optimal levels of diet and activity in children. The aim of this paper is to describe and compare self-reported physical activity levels, diet, and Body Mass Indices (BMI) amongst adolescent children, aged 11-15, in the South West (SW) and North West (NW) regions of England and to see if these children were meeting the current targets for optimal levels of: physical activity; fruit/vegetable consumption; fat consumption and BMI. We report the results of a cross-sectional survey of four secondary schools and 1,869 children using the self-reported Western Australian Child and Adolescent Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (CAPANS) physical activity instrument and a food intake screener questionnaire, in summer and winter. We found that 25% (469/1869) 95% CI: 23% to 27%, of children engaged in 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day; 53% (995/1866) 95% CI: 51% to 56%, took 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day; while 22% (407/1861) 95% CI: 20% to 24% consumed recommended amount of fats, and 23.7% (276/1164) 95% CI: 21% to 26%, of pupils were obese or overweight as classified by their BMI. Self reported physical activity in young people regardless of area is lower than previously reported and the lack of students engaging in 60 minutes moderate to vigorous activity could have serious public health consequences. If sustained, this could lead to more overweight adults, and more ill health.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Boyle, S. , Jones, G. and Walters, S. (2010) Physical activity, weight status and diet in adolescents: are children meeting the guidelines. Health, 2, 1142-1149. doi: 10.4236/health.2010.210167.

References

[1] Black, D., Morris, J.N., Smith, C. and Townsend, P. (1980) Inequalities in health: Report of a research working group. Department of Health and Social Security, London.
[2] Davey Smith, G., Bartley, M. and Blane, D. (1990) The black report on socioeconomic inequalities in health 10 years on. British Medical Journal, 301(6748), 373-377.
[3] Morris, J.N. (1990) Inequalities in health: Ten years and little further on. Lancet, 336(8713), 491-493.
[4] Department of Health, (1992) The health of the nation: A strategy for health in England. HMSO, London.
[5] Davey Smith, G. and Egger, M. (1993) Socioeconomic differentials in wealth and health: Widening inequalities in health. British Medical Journal, 307(6912), 1085- 1086.
[6] National Statistics Online, (2008) Life expectancy at birth by health and local authorities in the United Kingdom 1999-2003. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/ theme_population/LE_E&W_2007.xls
[7] National Institutes of Health (NIH): The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Clinical guidelines on the identification evaluation and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: The evidence report. NIH Publications, 1998.
[8] Reilly, J.J., Methven, E., McDowel, Z.C., Hacking, B., Alexander, D., Stewart, L. and Kelnar, C.J.H. (2003) Health consequences of obesity. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 88(9), 748-752.
[9] DH (Department of Health) (Central Health Monitoring Unit, Health Improvement Directorate – Public Health), Health Profile of England, Department of Health, London, 2006.
[10] Erlichman, J., Kerbey, A.L. and James, W.T.P. (2002) Physical activity and its impact on health outcomes. Paper 2: The prevention of unhealthy weight gain and obesity by physical activity: An analysis of the evidence. Obesity Reviews, 3(4), 273-287.
[11] Department of Health (2004) At least five a week. Evidence on the impact of physical activity and its relationship to health. A report from the chief medical officer. Department of Health, London.
[12] Khunti, K., Stone, M., Bankart, J., et al. (2007) Physical activity and sedentary behaviours of South Asian and white European children in inner city secondary schools in the UK. Family Practice, 24(3), 237-244.
[13] Sproston, K. and Primatesta, P., Eds. (2003) Health survey for England 2002. The health of children and young people. Stationary Office, London.
[14] The Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (CO- MA) (1991) Report on health and social subjects 41, Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for food energy and nutrients for the UK, report of the panel on DRVs. Stationary Office, London.
[15] Gregory, J.R., Lowe, S., Bates, C.J., et al. (2000) National diet and nutrition survey: Young people aged 4-18 years. HMSO, London.
[16] Boyle, S.E. (2008) Evaluation of physical activity levels among adolescents in the Southwest and Northwest: Consideration of health issues. A Ph.D. study. The University of Sheffield, Sheffield.
[17] McCormack, G. and Giles-Corti, B. (2002) Report to the physical activity taskforce, evaluation and monitoring group: An assessment of self-report questionnaires and motion sensors for measuring physical activity in children. Department of Public Health, The University of Western Australia, Australia.
[18] Hands, B., Parker, H., Glasson, C., Brinkman, S. and Read, H. (2004) Results of Western Australian child and adolescent physical activity and nutrition survey 2003 (CAPANS. Physical Activity Technical Report). The University of Notre Dame, Australia.
[19] Block, G., Gillespie, C., Rosenbaum E.H. and Jenson, C. (2000) A rapid food screener to assess fat and fruit and vegetable intake. American Journal of Preventive Med- icine, 18(4), 284-288.
[20] Cole, T.J., Freeman, J.V. and Preece, M.A. (1990) Body mass index reference curves for the UK. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 73(1), 25-29.
[21] Sallis, J.F., Prochaska, J.J. and Taylor, W.C. (2000) A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), 963-975.
[22] van Mechelen, W. and Kemper, H.C.G. (1995) Habitual PA in longitudinal perspective. In: Kemper, H.G.C., Ed., The Amsterdam growth study: A longitudinal analysis of health, fitness and lifestyle. Human Kinetics, Champaign, 135-158.
[23] StataCorp (2005) Stata statistical software: Release 9. StataCorp LP, College Station.
[24] Chinn, S. and Rona, R.J. (2002) International definitions of overweight and obesity for children: A lasting solution? Annals of Human Biology, 29(3), 306-313.
[25] Currie, C., Roberts, C., Morgan, A., et al. (2004) Young peoples health in context. Health behaviour in school children (HBSC) study: International report from 2001/ 2002 survey, health policy for children and adolescents. No. 4. WHO, Copenhagen.
[26] WHO (World Health Organisation) (2004) Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. WHO, Geneva.
[27] Welk, G. (2002) Physical activity assessments for health related research. Human Kinetics, Iowa.
[28] DOH (2001) The national school fruit scheme: Evaluation summary. Crown Copyright, Department of Health.
[29] Welk, G.J., Corbin, C.B. and Dale, D. (2000) Measurement issues in the assessment of physical activity in children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71(2), 59-73.
[30] Sallis, J.F. and Owen, N. (1999) Physical activity and behavioural medicine. Sage Publications, London.
[31] Fortenberry, D.J. (1992) Reliability of adolescents’ reports of height and weight. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13(2), 114-117.
[32] Strauss, R.S. (1999) Comparison of measured and self reported weight and height in a cross sectional sample of young adolescents. International Journal of Obesity Related Metabolic Disorders, 23(8), 904-908.
[33] Goodman, E., Hinden, B.R. and Khandelwal, S. (2000) Accuracy of teen and parental reports of obesity and body mass index. Peadiatrics, 106(1), 52-58.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.