Comprehensive Study on the Basis of Eye Blink, Suggesting Length of Text Line, Considering Typographical Variables the Way How to Improve Reading from Computer Screen


The advent and extensive use of computer and increasing development of different technologies it is important to increase the awareness of issues related to the electronic text or text presentation on computer screen. The usage of web shows the importance of usability and readability of the web applications or sources provide by the web and web textual contents. Web application fails to encounter the user’s requirements in effective manner specially related to textual information, because the designers are unaware from some of the important factors effecting readability, reading from the screen. In this regard, this study is the continuation of the previous work that has been done for the improvement of readability, to handle the readability issues on the basis of Eye Blink for male participants and female participants. To achieve general recommendations for suitable or optimum length of text line for all type of users on the bases of eye blink. Basically during reading from the computer screen focus losses at two positions, when eye blink in the middle of text line and when text line ends. The study specifies suitable length of text line on the basis of Eye Blink, assuming three typographical variables i.e. font style, font color, font size, and with white background, which improve the overall readability or reading from computer screen. The study also shows two important things the degree of understandability and the degree of attractive appearance of different combination.

Share and Cite:

M. Khan and K.  , "Comprehensive Study on the Basis of Eye Blink, Suggesting Length of Text Line, Considering Typographical Variables the Way How to Improve Reading from Computer Screen," Advances in Internet of Things, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2013, pp. 9-20. doi: 10.4236/ait.2013.31002.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] K. Garland and Associates, “Designers: 20 Years Work and Play 1962-82,” Garland, 1982
[2] T. Nelson, “The Secret of Human Life,” 1987.
[3] Google Data Center vs. Microsoft Infrastructure, 2006.
[4] Internet World States, “World Internet Users and Population Statistics,” 2012.
[5] R. Conrad, “Computer Screens, TV’s and Flicker Sensitivity,” Subliminal Flicker Part I.
[6] Pasadena Eye Associates, “Frequently Asked Questions”.
[7] A. V. Kak, “Relationships between Readability of Printed and CRT-Displayed Text,” Proceeding of Human Factors Society, 25th Annual Meeting, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1981, pp. 137-140.
[8] R. S. Kruk and P. Muter, “Reading Continuous Text from Video Screen,” Proceeding of Human Factors, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1984, pp. 339-3345.
[9] Smedshammar, et al., “Why Is the Difference in Reading Speed When Reading from VDUs and from Paper Bigger for Fast Readers then for Slow Readers?” WWDU 1989, 2nd International Scientific Conference, Montreal, 1-4 May 1989.
[10] J. Nielsen, “Designing web usability: The practice of simplicity” New Riders Publishing, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, 2000. pp. 420, Paper: ISBN 1-56205-810-X
[11] Bradley Wilson Readability First at
[12] M. Khan, M. Raza and N. Rashid, “Appropriate Length of Text Line with Special Relationship to Eye Blink to Reduce Maximum Focus Loss,” International Conference on Internet Computing, Las Vegas, 12-15 July 2010, pp. 97-102.
[13] M. Khan and M. Raza, “Suitable Length of Text Line on the Bases of Eye Blink for Reducing Maximum Focus Losses,” International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 37, No. 8, 2012, pp. 15-21
[14] A. Weber, “Ueber die Augenuntersuchungen in Den Hoheren Schulen zu Darmstadt,” Abtheilung fur Gesunheitspflege, Marz, 1881.
[15] H. Cohn, “Die Hygiene des Auges in den Schulen, Leipzig. [See Tinker and Paterson, 1929],” 1883.
[16] Tinker and D. G. Paterson, “Studies of Typographical Factors Influencing Speed of Reading: Length of Line,” The Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1929, p. 205.
[17] M. A. Tinker, “Legibility of Print,” Iowa State University Press, Ames, 1968.
[18] M. D. Jackson and J. L. Mcclelland, “Processing Determinants of Reading Speed,” Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol. 108, No. 2, 1979, pp. 151-181.
[19] R. L. Duchanicky and P. A. Kolers, “Readability of Text Scrolled on Visual Display Terminals as a Function of Window Size,” Vol. 25, No. 6, 1983, pp. 683-692.
[20] M. E. J. Masson, “Rapid Reading Processes and Skills,” In: G. E. Mackinnon and T. G. Waller, Eds., Advances in Theory and Practice, Vol. 4, Academic Press, Orlando, 1985, pp. 183-230.
[21] K. Rayner and A. Pollatsek, “The Psychology of Reading,” Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1989.
[22] M. Dyson and G. J. Kipping, “The Effects of Line Length and Method of Movement on Patterns of Reading from Screen,” Visible Languages, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1998, pp. 150-181.
[23] M. Youngman and L. Scharff, “Text Width and Margin width Influences on Readability of GUIs,” 1998.
[24] M. C. Dyson and M. Haselgrove, “The Influence of Reading Speed and Line Length on the Effectiveness of Reading from Screen,” Department of Typography & Graphic Communication, The University of Reading, Reading, 2001.
[25] M. Beernard, M. Fernandez and S. Hull, “The Effects of Line Length on Children and Adults’ Online Reading Performance,” Usability News, 2002.
[26] Bob Bailey, “Optimal Line Length: Research Supporting How Line Length Affects Usability,” 2002.
[27] A. D. D. Shaikh, “The Effects of Line Length on Reading Online News,” Usability News, 2005.
[28] R. Hall and P. Hanna, “The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention,” Behavior & Information Technology, Forthcoming, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2004, pp. 183-195. doi:10.1080/01449290410001669932
[29] City of Seattle Web Presentation and Accessibility Standards Version 2.5: Revised by Internet Board, Approved by the Technology Board, January 2009. Originally Approved 2003 by the Web Governance Board and the Business Management Council.
[30] M. Raza, SZABIST Islamabad Pakistan, “Perception of Participants about Font’s Readability, Style, Youthfulness and Fun, Business Likeness and General Preference,” The 2008 International Conference on Semantic Web and Web Services.
[31] “Reconstruction of Eye Movements during Blinks,” Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Komplexer Systeme, Nothnitzerst.
[32] Spontaneous Blinking in Healthy Persons, “An Optoelectronic Study of Eyelid Motion,” Functional Anatomy Research Center (FARC), Università degli Studi, Milano.
[33] L. E. Ebite, T. C. Ozoko and A. O. Eweka, “Rate of Blinking among Medical Students in Delta State Nigeria: Is the Eyelid a Polygraph?” The Internet Journal of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2009. doi:10.5580/27aa
[34] Standard font size.
[35] L. F. Bacher, “Factors Regulating Eye Blink Rate in Young Infants,” Optometry and Vision Science, Vol. 87, No. 5, 2010, pp. 337-343.
[36] H. ur Rasheed, Eye specialist, Saidu Medical College, Saidu.
[37] L. F. Bacher and P. S. William, “Spontaneous Eye Blinking in Human Infants: A Review,” Developmental

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.