Electromagnetic Response Studies of the Antenna for Deep Water Deep Target CSEM Environments

DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2012.412072   PDF   HTML     3,362 Downloads   5,530 Views   Citations


The Controlled Source Electromagnetic Method (CSEM) is used for offshore hydrocarbon exploration. Hydrocarbon detection in seabed logging (SBL) is a very challenging task for deep hydrocarbon reservoirs. The electromagnetic field response of an antenna is unable to detect deep hydrocarbon reservoirs due to a weak electromagnetic signal response in the seabed logging environment. This work premise deals with the comparison of the electromagnetic signal strength of a new antenna with a straight antenna and the orientation of an antenna for deep target hydrocarbon exploration. Antenna position and orientation (Tx and Ty) was studied using Computer Simulation Technology software (CST) for deep targets in marine CSEM environments. The model area was assigned as (40 40 km) to replicate the real seabed environment. From the results, the new dipole antenna shows an 804% and 278% increase in electric and magnetic field strength than the straight antenna. An electric (E) and magnetic (H) field component study was done with and without the presence of a hydrocarbon reservoir. Ex and Hz field component responses with the new antenna at the1 kmtarget were measured in a deep water environment. It was analyzed that the antenna shows 53.10% (Ex) and 83.13% (Hz) field difference in deep water with and without a hydrocarbon reservoir at the30 mantenna position from the sea floor. From the antenna orientation results, it was observed that, the electric field Ex and magnetic field Hz responses decreased from 18% to 12% and 21% to 16%, respectively but was still able to detect the deep target hydrocarbon reservoir at the4 kmtarget depth. This EM antenna may open new frontiers for the oil and gas industry for deep target hydrocarbon detection (HC).

Share and Cite:

N. Yahya, N. Nasir, M. Akhtar, M. Kashif, T. Hussain, H. Zaid and A. Shafie, "Electromagnetic Response Studies of the Antenna for Deep Water Deep Target CSEM Environments," Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2012, pp. 513-522. doi: 10.4236/jemaa.2012.412072.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] L. MacGregor and M. Sinha, “Use of Marine ControlledSource Electromagnetic Sounding for Sub-Basalt Exploration,” Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2000, pp. 1091-1106. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2478.2000.00227.x
[2] B. Tossman, D. Thayer and W. Swartz, “An Underwater Towed Electromagnetic Source for Geophysical Exploration,” IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1979, pp. 84-89. doi:10.1109/JOE.1979.1145427
[3] S. Johansen, et al., “Subsurface Hydrocarbons Detected by Electromagnetic Sounding,” First Break, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2005, pp. 31-36.
[4] N. Yahya, M. N. Akhtar, N. Nasir, A. Shafie, M .S. Jabeli and K. Koziol, “CNT Fibres/Aluminium-NiZnFe2O4 Based EM Transmitter for Improved Magnitude vs. Offset (MVO) in a Scaled Marine Environment,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2011, in press.
[5] N. Yahya, M. N. Akhtar, N. Nasir, H. Daud and M. Narahari, “Forward Modeling of Seabed Logging by Finite Integration (FI) and Finite Element (FE) Methods,” Digital Subscriber Line, 2011, in press.
[6] N. Yahya, M. Kashif, H. Daud, H. M. Zaid, A. Shafie, N. Nasir and A. See, “Fabrication and Characterization of Y3.0-XLaXFe5O12—PVA Composite as EM Waves Detector,” International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 9, 2009, pp. 131-134.
[7] N. Nasir, N. Yahya, M. N. Akhtar, M. Kashif, A. Shafie, H. Daud and H. M. Zaid, “Magnitude Verses Offset Study with EM Transmitter in Different Resistive Medium,” Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 7, 2011, pp. 1309-1314. doi:10.3923/jas.2011.1309.1314
[8] M. N. Akhtar, N. Yahya, H. Daud, A. Shafie, H. M. Zaid, M. Kashif and N. Nasir, “Development of EM Wave Guide Amplifier Potentially Used for Seabed Logging,” Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 7, 2011, pp. 1361-1365. doi:10.3923/jas.2011.1361.1365
[9] M. Unsworth, “New Developments in Conventional Hydrocarbon Exploration with Electromagnetic Methods,” CSEG Recorder, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2005, pp. 34-38.
[10] P. Clemmow, “The Theory of Electromagnetic Waves in a Simple Vanisotropic Medium,” Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 110, No. 1, 1963, pp. 101-106. doi:10.1049/piee.1963.0015
[11] F. N. Kong, H. Weterdahl, S. Ellingsrud, T. Eidesmo and S. Johansen, “A Possible Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator for Deep Sea Prospects Using EM Energy,” Oil and Gas Journal, Vol. 100, No. 19, 2002, pp. 30-38.
[12] M. N. Akhtar, N. Yahya, K. Koziol and N. Nasir, “Synthesis and Characterizations of Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4-MWCNTs Composites for Their Application in Sea Bed Logging,” Ceramics International, Vol. 37, No. 8, 2011, pp. 32373245. doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2011.05.113
[13] M. C. Sinha, P. D. Patel, M. J. Unsworth, T. R. E. Owen and M. G. R. MacCormack, “An Active Source ElectroMagnetic Sounding System for Marine Use,” Marine Geophysical Research, Vol. 12, No. 1-2, 1990, pp. 59-68.
[14] J. Nordskag and L. Amundsen, “Asymptotic Airwave Modeling for Marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic Surveying,” Geophysics, Vol. 72, No. 6, 2007, pp. F249-F255. doi:10.1190/1.2786025
[15] Y. Li and K. Key, “2D Marine Controlled Electromagnetic Modeling: An Adaptive Finite Element Algorithem,” Geophysics, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2007, pp. 51-62. doi:10.1190/1.2432262
[16] F. N. Kong, S. E. Johnstad and T. Roesten, “Characteristics of Scattered Fields from Hydrocarbon Layers in Seabed Logging,” PIERS Online, Vol. 2, No. 6, 2006, pp. 585-588. doi:10.2529/PIERS060821070831
[17] P. D. Young and C. S. Cox, “Electromagnetic Active Source Sounding Near the East Pacific Rise,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 8, No. 10, 1981, pp. 1043-1046. doi:10.1029/GL008i010p01043
[18] E. Um and D. Alumbaugh, “On the Physics of the Marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic Method,” Geophysics, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2007, pp. WA13-WA26. doi:10.1190/1.2432482
[19] S. Ellingsrud, T. Eidesmo, S. Johansen, M. C. Sinha, L. M. MacGregor and S. Constabl, “The Leading Edge,” Society of Economic Geologists, Vol. 21, No. 10, 2002, pp. 972-982. doi:10.1190/1.1518433
[20] S. C. Constable, C. S. Cox and A. D. Chave, “Offshore Electromagnetic Surveying Techniques,” 1986 SEG Annual Meeting, 1986.
[21] P. D. Aversana and M. Vivier, “Geophysical Prospecting, Expanding the Frequency Spectrum in Marine CSEM Applications,” Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 57, No. 4, 2008, pp. 573-590.
[22] F. Maao and F. A. Roth, “Improving Seabed Logging Sensitivity in Shallow Water through Up-Down Separation,” EGM 2007 International Workshop, Trondhiem, 2007
[23] J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic Wave Theory,” John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1986.
[24] A. Shaw, A. I. Al-Shamma’a, S. R. Wylie and D. Toal, “Experimental Investigations of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Seawater,” Proceedings of the 36th European Microwave Conference, Manchester, 10-15 September 2006, pp. 572-575.
[25] Sodal, “Transmitting Antenna,” US Patent No. 0202697, 2006.
[26] H. Daud, N. Yahya and R. Harun, “Wireless Control Mechanisim for EM Source and Receiver Positioning for Offshore Applications,” Journal of Applied Science, Vol. 11, No. 7, 2011, pp. 1812-5654.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.