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Effects of Myrothecium verrucaria on Ultrastructural Integrity of Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) and Phytotoxin Implications

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DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.311182    3,747 Downloads   5,547 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (MV), originally isolated from diseased sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia L.), has bioherbicial activity against kudzu and several other weeds when applied with low concentrations of the surfactant Silwet L-77. To more fully understand the initial events of MV infection or disease progression, and to improve knowledge related to its mechanism of action, the effects of MV and its product (roridin A) on kudzu seedlings were examined at the ultrastructural level. Ultrastructural analysis of MV effects on kudzu seedlings revealed a rapid (~1 h after treatment) detachment of the protoplast from the cell wall and plasmodesmata appeared to be broken off and retained in the wall. These symptoms occurred well in advance of the appearance of any fungal growth structures. Some fungal growth was observed after severe tissue degeneration (24 to 48 h after treatment), but this occurred primarily at the extra-cellular location with respect to the kudzu tissues. Kudzu seedlings treated with roridin A, a trichothecene produced by the fungus, exhibited some symptoms similar to those induced by the fungus applied in spore formulations with surfactant. The overall results are the first to report the ultrastructural effects of this bioherbicide on plants and suggest that penetration of a phytotoxic substance(s) in the fungal formulation was facilitated by the surfactant, and that roridin A exerts phytotoxicity toward kudzu.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

R. Hoagland, C. Boyette, K. Vaughn, N. Teaster and K. Stetina, "Effects of Myrothecium verrucaria on Ultrastructural Integrity of Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) and Phytotoxin Implications," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 11, 2012, pp. 1513-1519. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2012.311182.

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