The Effect of Heavy Metals Cadimium, Chromium and Iron Accumulation in Human Eyes


The object of the present study is to measure the concentrations of toxic heavy metals in human eyes (cadimium and chromium) and major mineral iron ion. The heavy metals cadimium, chromium and iron were assayed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Metals determination in human eye is the most common application of biological monitoring for screening diagnosis and assessment of metals exposures and their risks. The statistical analysis of the metals (cadimium, chromium and iron) levels in human eyes showed that levels of the three metals in non-smoker were lower than metals contents of the smoker groups. Metals levels in human eyes of males were significantly lower than females. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed between persons living in city centre and others who living in outskirt for concentrations of all three metals. Geographical influences are thought to be the main source of variability.

Share and Cite:

H. Haddad, "The Effect of Heavy Metals Cadimium, Chromium and Iron Accumulation in Human Eyes," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 3 No. 10, 2012, pp. 710-713. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2012.310094.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] S. Sataray, J. B. Baker and S. Curbenjapol, “A Global Perspective on Cadimium Pollution and Toxicity in Non-Occupationally Exposed Population,” Toxicology Letters, Vol. 137, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 65-83. doi:10.1016/S0378-4274(02)00381-8
[2] B. Halliwell and T. M. Gutteridge, “Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999.
[3] S. J. Stohs and D. Bagchi, “Oxidative Mechanism in Toxicity of Heavy Metals,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1995, pp.321-336. doi:10.1016/0891-5849(94)00159-H
[4] N. Ercal, O. Gurer and B. Aykin, “Toxic Metals and Oxidative Stress, Part 1: Mechanisms Involved in Metal Induce Oxidative Damage,” Current Topics Medicinal Che- mistry, Vol. 1, No. 6, 2001, pp. 529-539. doi:10.2174/1568026013394831
[5] E. O. Farombi, O. A. Aclelowo and Y. R. Ajimoko, “Bio-markers of Oxidative Stress and Heavy Metal Levels as Indicators of Environmental Pollution in African Cat Fish from Nigeria Ogun River,” International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2007, pp.158-165. doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040011
[6] Occupational Health and safety administration safety and health topics, 2008. http.//
[7] A. Pompello, A. Visvikis, A. Paolicchi and V. Detata, “The Changing Faces of Glutathione a Cellular Protago- nist,” Bio-chemical Pharmacology, Vol. 66, No. 8, 2003, pp. 1499-1503.
[8] M. D. Pulido and A. R. Parrish, “Metal In-duced Apoptosis Mechanisms,” Mutation Research, Vol. 533, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 227-241. doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2003.07.015
[9] R. Mehra and M. Juneja, “Advers Health Effects in Workers Exposed to Trace Toxic Metals at Work-Place,” Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2003, pp. 131-135.
[10] E. R. Jay and M. D. John, “Heavy Metal Concentration in Human Eyes,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 139, No. 5, 2005, pp. 888-894. doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2004.12.007
[11] D. R. Baldwin and W. J. Marshall, “Heavy Metal Poisoning and Its Laboratory Investigation,” Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1999, pp. 267-300.
[12] B. S. Larrson, “Interaction between Chemical and Melanin Pigment Cell,” Research, Vol. 6, No. *, 1993, pp.127- 133.
[13] A. M. Potts and P. C. Au, “The Affinity of Melanin for Inorganic Ions,” Experimental Eye Research, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1976, pp.487-491. doi:10.1016/0014-4835(76)90186-X
[14] P. Coyle, J. C. Philcox and A. M. Rofe, “Clinical Significance of Metallothionein Adealer in Heavy Metals,” The Clinical Bio-chemical Reviews, Vol. 14, No. *, 1993, pp. 118-125.
[15] L. T. Friberg, M. Piscator and G. F. Nordberg, “Occurance, Possible Routes of Exposure and Daily Intake,” In: R. West, Ed., Cadimium in Environment, CRC Press. Boca Raton, 1971.
[16] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, “*,” Tox FAQS, 2008. http//
[17] M. J. Stillman and A. Presta, “Characterizing Metal Ion Interaction with Biological Molecules—The Spectroscopy of Metallothionine,” Journal of Editors Molecular Biology and Toxicology of Metal, Vol. *, No. *, 2000, pp. 276-290.
[18] S. S. Vutukuru, “Acute Effects of Hexavalent Chromium on Survival, Oxygen Consumption, Hematological Parameters and Some Biochemical Profiles of IndIan Major Carp, Labeo Rohita,” International Journal of Environmental Public Health, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2005, pp. 456-462. doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030010
[19] C. A. Bache, “Cadimium and Nickel in Main Steam Particulate of Cigarattes Containing Tobacco Grown on a Low-Cadimium Soil-Sluge Mixture,” Journal of Toxcology and Environmental Health, Vol. 16, 1985, pp. 547- 552.
[20] A. Sukumar and R. Subramaniam, “Elements in Hair and Nails of Risidents from Avillage Adjacent to New Delhi Influence of Place of Occupation and Smoking Habits,” Biological Trace Element Research, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1992, pp. 99-105. doi:10.1007/BF02783902
[21] P. Paakko, P. Kokkonen, S. Anttila, and P. L. Kalliom?ki, “Cadimium and Chromium as Markers of Smoking in Human Lung Tissue,” Environmental Research, Vol. 49, No. 2, 1989, pp. 197-207. doi:10.1016/S0013-9351(89)80065-9
[22] W. Mertz and E. E. Reginsky, “Chromium Metabolism the Glucose Tolerance Factor, Newer Trace Element in Nutrition,” Dekker, New York, 1987.
[23] M. Wolfsperger, G. Hauser, W. G?blerc and C. Schlagenhaufen, “Heavy Metals in Human Hair Sample from Austria and Italy Influence of Smoking Habit,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 156, No. 3, 1994, pp. 235-239. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(94)90190-2

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.