Anti-Amnesic Activity of Vitex Negundo in Scopolamine Induced Amnesia in Rats


In the present study we investigated the anti-amnesic activity of Vitex negundo in scopolamine induced amnesia in rats. Wistar rats (180-200 g) were trained on active avoidance task. Each animal received session of 15 trials with inter trial duration of 15 s for 5 days. Scopolamine (3 mg/kg, i.p) was administered at different time periods on the basis of stages of memory i.e acquisition, consolidation and retention in different groups (n = 6). Effect of Vitex negundo extract was evaluated and compared to a standard drug, Donepezil. Significant (p < 0.05) increase in the avoidance response on the 5th session has been observed as compared to 1st session in control group. Scopolamine treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the avoidance response compared to control. Extract treated groups shown significant (p < 0.05) increase in number of avoidance responses as compared to scopolamine treated groups. Increased oxidative stress in brain after scopolamine treatment, as observed by increase in MDA & decrease in GSH & SOD, was lowered in the groups treated with extracts. AChE activity was also improved after V. negundo treatment. Results of the study have shown that V. negundo treated groups decrease the phenomenon of amnesia by increasing learning of memory through antioxidant effect and decreasing AChE activity.

Share and Cite:

A. Kanwal, J. Mehla, M. Kuncha, V. Naidu, Y. Gupta and R. Sistla, "Anti-Amnesic Activity of Vitex Negundo in Scopolamine Induced Amnesia in Rats," Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Vol. 1 No. 1, 2010, pp. 1-8. doi: 10.4236/pp.2010.11001.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. Dunning and J. D. Matthew, “Molecular Mechanisms of Learning and Memory,” Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 25, 2003, pp. 1-11.
[2] A. Blockland, “Acetylcholine: A Neurotransmitter for Learning and Memory?” Brain Research Review, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1996, pp. 285-300.
[3] M. F. Siddiqui and A. I. Levey, “Cholinergic Therapies in Alzheimer’s Disease,” Drugs of the Future, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1999, pp. 417-444.
[4] J. Winkler, S. Suhr and F. Gage, “Essential Role of Neo-cortical Acetylcholine in Spatial Memory,” Nature, Vol. 375, No. 6531, 1995, pp. 484-487.
[5] T. F. Wernicke and F. M. Reischies, “Prevalence of De-mentia in Old Age: Clinical Diagnoses in Subjects Aged 95 and Older,” Neurology, Vol. 44, No. 2, l994, pp. 250- 253.
[6] D. C. Ewbank, “Deaths Attributable to Alzheimer’s Dis-ease in the United States,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 1, 1991, pp. 90-92.
[7] V. Chandra, R. Pandav and H. H. Dodge, “Incidence of Alzheimer’s Disease in a Rural Community in India: The Indo-US Study,” Neurology, Vol. 57, No. 6, 2001, pp. 985-989.
[8] V. Chandra, M. Ganguli and R. Pandav, “Prevalence of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias in Rural India: The Indo-US Study,” Neurology, Vol. 51, No. 4, 1998, pp. 1000-1008.
[9] T. Sunderland, P. N. Tariot, R. M. Cohen, H. Weingarbier, E. A. Mueller and D. L. Murphy, “Anticholinergic Sensi-tivity in Patients with Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type and Age Matched Controls,” Archives of General Psy-chiatry, Vol. 44, No. 5, l987, pp. 418-426.
[10] C. Flicker, S. H. Ferris and M. Serby, “Hypersensitivity to scopolamine in the elderly,” Psychopharmacology, Vol. 107, No. 2-3, 1992, pp. 437-441.
[11] E. Giacobini, “The Cholinergic System in Alzheimer's Disease,” In: S. M. Aquilonius and P. G. Gillberg, (Eds.), Brain Research. Cholinergic Neurotransmission: Func-tional and Clinical Aspects, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990, pp. 321-332.
[12] W. R. Markesbery, “Oxidative stress hypothesis in Alz-heimer’s disease,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1997, pp. 134-147.
[13] M. A. Lovell, W. D. Ehmann, S. M. Butler and W. R. Markesberg, “Elevated Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Brain in Alzheimer’s Disease,” Neurology, Vol. 45, No. 8, 1995, pp. 1594-1608.
[14] U. H. Azhar and M. Abdul, “Enzymes Inhibiting Lignans from Vitex Negundo,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Vol. 52, No. 11, 2004, pp. 1269-1272.
[15] M. G. Dharmasiri, J. R. Jayakodym, G. Galhenam, S. S. Liyanagem and W. D. Ratnasooriyam, “Anti Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Mature Fresh Leaves of Vitex Negundo,” Jounal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 87, No. 2-3, 2003, pp. 199-206.
[16] A. C. Guyton and J. E. Hall, “Textbook of Medical Phy-siology,” Harcourt Asia Pte Ltd, Singapore, 1999.
[17] H. Ohkawa, N. Ohishi and K. Yagi, “Assay for Lipid Peroxides in Animal Tissues by Thiobarbituric Acid Reaction,” Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 95, No. 2, 1979, pp. 351- 358.
[18] P. J. Hissin and R. Hilf, “A Fluorometric Method for Determination of Oxidized and Reduced Glutathione in Tissues,” Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 74, No. 1, 1976, pp. 214-226.
[19] G. L. Ellman, D. K. Courtney, V. Andres and R. M. Fea-therstone, “A New and Rapid Colorimetric Determination of Acetylcholinesterase Activity,” Biochemical Pharma-cology, Vol.7, No. 2, 1961, pp. 88-95.
[20] R. S. Telang, S. Chatterjee and C. Varshneya, “Studies on Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Vitex Negundo Linn,” Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 31, No. 5, 1999, pp. 363-366.
[21] R. K. Gupta and V. R. Tandon, “Antinociceptive Activity of Vitex-Negundo Linn Leaf Extract,” Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 49, No. 2, 2005, pp. 163-170.
[22] R. K. Gupta and V. R. Tandon, “Vitex Negundo Linn (VN) Leaf Extract as an Adjuvant Therapy to Standard Anti-Inflammatory Drugs,” The Indian Journal of Medical Research, Vol. 124, No. 4, 2006, pp. 447-450.
[23] M. N. Ghosh, “Fundamentals of Experimental Pharma-cology,” scientific book agency, Calcutta, 1984.
[24] M. H. V. Kumar and Y. K. Gupta, “Antioxidant Property of Celastrus Paniculatus Willd: A Possible Mechanism in Enhancing Cognition,” Phytomedicine, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2002, pp. 302-311.
[25] C. I. Cantuti, B. Shukitt-Hale and J. A. Joseph, “Neuro-behavioural Aspects of Antioxidants in Aging,” Interna-tional Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, Vol. 18, No. 4-5, 2000, pp. 367-381.
[26] T. Coyle and P. Puttfarcven, “Oxidative Stress, Glutamate and Neurodegenerative Disorder,” Science, Vol. 262, No. 5134, 1993, pp. 89-695.
[27] J. B. Schulz, J. Linderau and J. Dichgans, “Glutathione, Oxidative Stress and Neurodegeneration,” European Jour-nal of Biochemistry, Vol. 267, No. 16, 2000, pp. 4904- 4911.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.