A Cost-Benefit Evaluation of the Air Quality and Health Impacts in São Paulo, Brazil


The objective was to assess the impact on health due to the exposure to air pollution derived from the renewal of the urban bus fleet in S?o Paulo. The study analyzed the substitution of the bus fleet through the variation of the concentration of atmospheric pollutants such as PM10 in the municipality of S?o Paulo and its associated health’s benefits values compared to the investments performed in the bus fleet renewal. PM10 average annual reduction due to the bus improvement system resulted on 22.3%. A cost-benefit evaluation considered the renewal investments’ costs compared to the obtained valued health benefits and it resulted in 4.31. Although the result may suggest a not viable investment, it must be observed that air pollution reduction favors health impacts and that this relation could be improved if additional investments on sustainable transportation increase.

Share and Cite:

D. Veronez, L. Kulay, P. Saldiva and S. Miraglia, "A Cost-Benefit Evaluation of the Air Quality and Health Impacts in São Paulo, Brazil," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 No. 9A, 2012, pp. 1161-1166. doi: 10.4236/jep.2012.329134.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] SEMPLA—Secretaria Municipal de Planejamento, “Mapas e Dados,” 2007. http://sempla.prefeitura.sp.gov.br/mapasedados.php
[2] D. W. Dockery, et al., “Air Pollution and Daily Mortality: Associations with Particulates and Acid Aerosols,” Environmental Research, Vol. 59, No. 2, 1992, pp. 362-373. doi:10.1016/S0013-9351(05)80042-8
[3] C. A. Pope 3rd, et al., “Lung Cancer, Cardiopulmonary Mortality, and Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 287, No. 9, 2002, pp. 1132-1141. doi:10.1001/jama.287.9.1132
[4] P H Saldiva, et al., “Air Pollution and Mortality in Eld- erly People: A Time-Series Study in Sao Paulo, Brazil,” Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 50, No. 2, 1995, pp. 159-163. doi:10.1080/00039896.1995.9940893
[5] J. Schwartz, et al., “Is Daily Mortality Associated Specifically with Fine Particles?” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 46, No. 10, 1996, pp. 927- 939. doi:10.1080/10473289.1996.10467528
[6] P. A. Andre, et al., “Environmental Epidemiology Applied to Urban Atmospheric Pollution: A Contribution from the Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory (LPAE),” Cadernos de Saúde Pública, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2000, pp. 619-628. doi:10.1590/S0102-311X2000000300011
[7] G. M. Conceicao, et al., “Air pollution and Child Mortal- ity: A Time-Series Study in Sao Paulo, Brazil,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 109, No. 3, 2001, pp. 347-350. doi:10.1289/ehp.01109s3347
[8] W. Gordon, “Environmental Justice, Impact Assessment and the Politics of Knowledge: The Implications of Assessing the Social Distribution of Environmental Out-comes,” Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2010, pp. 312-318. doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2010.04.005
[9] SPTRANS—S?o Paulo Transporte SA, “Dados,” 2009. http://www.sptrans.com.br/new05/conteudos/tarifas/tar_evolu.htm. Acessed on 22/09/2009
[10] CETESB—Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, “Qualidade do Ar,” 2007. http://www.cetesb.sp.gov.br/Ar/ar_saude.asp
[11] PROAIM—Programa de Aprimoramento das Informa- ??es de Mortalidade no Muncípio de S?o Paulo, “Dados de Mortalidade,” 2007. http://ww2.prefeitura.sp.gov.br/cgi/deftohtm.exe?secretarias saude/TABNET/SIM/obito.def
[12] GEIPOT, “Planilha Tarifaria Para o Estado de S?o Paulo,” 2007. http://www.geipot.gov.br/Estudos_Realizados/cartilha01/Tarifa/Tarifa.htm
[13] DIEESE—Departamento Intersindical de Estatística e Estudos Socioecon?micos, 2008. http://www.dieese.org.br/
[14] J. Schwartz, “Harvesting and Long Term Exposure Effects in the Relation between Air Pollution and Mortality,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 151, No. 5, 2000, pp. 440-448.
[15] METRO, “Regi?o Metropolitana de S?o Paulo,” Síntese das Informa??es, S?o Paulo, 2003.
[16] S. G. Miraglia, et al., “An Evaluation of Air Pollution Health Impacts and Costs in Sao Paulo, Brazil,” Envi- ronmental Management, Vol. 35, No. 5, 2005, pp. 667- 676. doi:10.1007/s00267-004-0042-9
[17] R. Bhatia and E. Seto, “Quantitative Estimation in Health Impact Assessment: Opportunities and Challenges,” Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2011, pp. 301-309. doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2010.08.003
[18] DENATRAN—Departamento Nacional de Transito, 2008. http://www.denatran.gov.br/frota.htm
[19] J. Hao, et al., “A Study of the Emission and Concentration Distribution of Vehicular Pollutants in the Urban Area of Beijing,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2000, pp. 453-465. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00324-6
[20] FIPE—Funda??o Instituto de Pesquisas Econ?micas, 2009. http://www.fipe.org.br/web/index.asp?c=6&aspx=/web/indices/inct/index.aspx

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.