Design and Development of an Electronic Sensor to Detect and Measure Curvature of Spaces Using Curvature Energy

DOI: 10.4236/jst.2012.23017   PDF   HTML     4,415 Downloads   7,728 Views   Citations


Using fine electromagnetic signals to measure observables of other fields like curvature and torsion of a space, and the corresponding value of their integrals of the action of perception of curvature through electronic signals that detect curvature on a curved surface, it is designed and constructed a sensor of curvature of accelerometer type that detects and curvature measures in 2 and 3-dimensional spaces using the programming of shape operators on spheres and the value of their integrals along the curves and geodesics in their principal directions.

Share and Cite:

F. Bulnes, I. Martínez, A. Mendoza and M. Landa, "Design and Development of an Electronic Sensor to Detect and Measure Curvature of Spaces Using Curvature Energy," Journal of Sensor Technology, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2012, pp. 116-126. doi: 10.4236/jst.2012.23017.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] V. Kaajakari, “Closed Form Expressions for RF MEMS Switch Actuation and Release Time,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 43, No. 3, 2009, pp. 149-150. doi:10.1049/el:20093281
[2] V. Kaajakari, A. T. Alastalo and T. Mattila, “Electrostatic Transducers for Micromechanical Resonators: Free Space and Solid Dielectric,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 53, No. 12, 2006, pp. 2484-2489.
[3] O. Holmgren, K. Kokkonen, T. Veijola, T. Mattila, V. Kaajakari, A. Oja, J. V. Knuuttila and M. Kaivola, “Analysis of Vibration Modes in a Micromechanical Square-Plate Resonator,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2009, Article ID: 015028.
[4] V. Kaajakari and A. Lal, “Micromachined Ultrasonic Motor Based on Parametric Polycrystalline Silicon Plate Excitation,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 137, No. 1, 2007, pp. 120-128. doi:10.1016/j.sna.20
[5] A. T. Alastalo and V. Kaajakari, “Intermodulation in Capacitively Coupled Microelectromechanical Filters,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 189-191.
[6] S. Kobayashi and K. Nomizu, “Foundations of Differential Geometry,” Wiley and Sons, New York, 1969.
[7] J. Lau, C. Lee, C. Premachandran and Y. Aibin, “Advanced MEMS Packaging (Electronic Enginnering),” Kindle Editon, USA, 2010.
[8] R. Pallás and J. G. Webster, “Sensors and Signal Conditioning,” 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2001.
[9] F. Bulnes, “Research on Curvature of Homogeneous Spaces,” TESCHA, Mexico, 2010, pp. 44-66.
[10] F. Bulnes, “Electromagnetic Gauges and Maxwell Lagrangians Applied to the Determination of Curvature in the Space-Time and Their Applications,” Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2012, pp. 252-266. doi:10.4236/jemaa.2012.46035
[11] F. Bulnes, E. Hernandez and J. Maya, “Design of Measurement and Detection Devices of Curvature through of the Synergic Integral Operators of the Mechanics on Light Waves,” Proceedings International Mechanics Engineering Conference and Exposition, Orlando Florida, 16 November 2009, pp. 91-102. doi:10.1115/IMECE2009-10038
[12] L. J. Van Vliet and P. W. Verbeek, “Curvature and Bending Energy in Digitized 2D and 3D Images,” Proceedings of 8th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, Tromso, 25-28 May 1993, pp. 1403-1410.
[13] B. Nashelky, “Electronics: Circuit Theory and Electronic Devices,” Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 2003.
[14] F. Bulnes, “Doctoral Course of Mathematical Electrodynamics,” International Proceedings of 2nd Appliedmath SEPI-IPN and IM-UNAM, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2006, pp. 398-447.
[15] G. Sparr, K. Str?hlen, K. Lindstr?m and H. W. Persson, “Doppler Tomography for Vector Fields,” Inverse Problems, Vol. 11, No. 5, 1995, p. 1051. doi:10.1088/0266-5611/11/5/009
[16] J. Król, “Quantum Gravity Insights from Smooth 4-Geometries on Trivial R4, Quantum Gravity,” Intech, Austria, 2012, pp. 53-78.
[17] L. Mason, “A Hamiltonian interpretation of Penrose’s Quasi-Local Mass,” Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1989, p. L7. doi:10.1088/0264-9381/6/2/001

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.