Study of Environmental Radiation on Sand and Soil Samples from Kuakata Sea Beach of Patuakhali


The activity concentrations of radionuclides in the sand and soil samples collected from Kuakata seabeach of Patuakhali district in Bangladesh have measured using a high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector of relative efficiency 40%. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found in the sand samples of Kuakata seabeach varied from 2.82 ± 4.89 to 87.96 ± 4.45 Bq.Kg–1, 21.72 ± 16.27 to 290.93 ± 18.15 Bq.Kg–1 and 26.24 ± 0.35 to 852.05 ± 142.15 Bq.Kg–1 respectively. For soil samples the activity concentrations of corresponding radionuclides were found to be 20.98 ± 3.96 to 42.92 ± 4.76 Bq.Kg–1, 59.25 ± 15.62 to 144.34 ± 18.52 Bq.Kg–1 and 570.43 ± 100.3 to 1165 ± 166.27 Bq.Kg–1 respectively. The average absorbed dose rate due to radionuclides in sand was estimated to range from 51.84 to 246.55 nGy.h–1 with an average of 98.33 nGy.h–1. Also the average absorbed dose rate due to radionuclides in soil was estimated to range from 76.63 nGy.h–1 to 142.36 nGy.h–1 with an average of 110.04 nGy.h–1. Radium equivalent activities were calculated for the analyzed samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the presence of this radionuclide in the samples. Most of the calculated radium equivalent activities are lower than the limit set in the OECD report (370–1). The measured representative level index values for the investigated samples varied in the range 0.8 to 3.75.

Share and Cite:

K. Islam, D. Paul, M. Bhuiyan, A. Akter, B. Neher and S. Islam, "Study of Environmental Radiation on Sand and Soil Samples from Kuakata Sea Beach of Patuakhali," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 No. 9, 2012, pp. 1078-1084. doi: 10.4236/jep.2012.39126.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] V. Kannana, M. P. Rajana, M. A. R. Iyengara and R. Rameshb, “Distribution of Natural and Anthropogenic Radionuclides in Soil and Beach Sand Samples of Kalpak- kam (India) Using Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) Gamma Ray Spectrometry,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2002, pp. 109-119. doi:10.1016/S0969-8043(01)00262-7
[2] S. U. El-Kameesy, S. Abd El-Ghany, S. M. El-Minyawi, Z. Miligy and E. M. El-Mabrouk, “Natural Radioactivity of Beach Sand Samples in the Tripoli Region, Northwest Libya,” Turkish Journal of Engineering & Environmental Science, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2008, pp. 245-251.
[3] IAEA, “Measurement of Radio-Nuclides in Food and the Environment,” IAEA Technical Report Series, No. 295, 1989.
[4] A. Amekudzie, G. Emi-Reynolds, A. Faanu, E.O. Darko, A. R. Awudu, O. Adukpo, L. A. N. Quaye, R. Kpordzro, B. Agyemang and A. Ibrahim, “Natural Radioactivity Con- centrations and Dose Assessment in Shore Sediments along the Coast of Greater Accra, Ghana,” World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 13, No. 11, 2011, pp. 2338-2343.
[5] International Atomic Energy Agency, “Measurement of Radionuclides in Food and the Environment: A Guide- book,” International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1989, pp. 139-144.
[6] NEA Group, “Nuclear Energy Agency, Exposure to Radiation from Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials,” OECD, Paris, 1979.
[7] United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), “Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionising Radiation,” United Nations, New York, 1988.
[8] M. R. Abdil, H. Faghihian, M. Kamali, M. Mostajaboddavati and A. Hasanzadeh, “Distribution of Natural Radionuclides on Coasts of Bushehr, Persian Gulf, Iran,” Iranian Journal of Science & Technology: Transaction A, Vol. 30, No. A3, 2006, pp. 259-269.
[9] K. A. Kabir, S. M. A. Islam and M. M. Rahman, ‘’Distribution of Radionuclides in Surface Soil and Bottom Sediment in the District of Jessore, Bangladesh and Evaluation of Radiation Hazard,” Journal of Bangladesh Aca- demy of Sciences, Vol. 33, No. 1, 2009, pp. 117-130.
[10] United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), “Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation,” United Nations, New York, 1993.
[11] R. D. Delaune, G. L. Jones and C. J. Smith. “Radinuclides Concentrations in Louisiana Soils and Sediments,” Health Physics, Vol. 51, No. 2, 1986, pp. 239-244.
[12] N. M. Ibrahiem, A. H. Abd El Ghani, S. M. Shawky, E. M. Ashraf and M. A. Farouk, “Measurement of Radioactivity Levels in the Nile Delta and Middle Egypt,” Health Physics, Vol. 64, No. 6, 1993, pp. 620-627. doi:10.1097/00004032-199306000-00007
[13] N. M. Ibrahiem, S. Shawky, H. A. Amer, “Radioactivity Levels in Lake Nasser Sediments,” Applied Radiation and Isotope, Vol. 46, No. 5, 1995, pp. 297-299. doi:10.1016/0969-8043(94)00144-O
[14] F. K. Miah, S. Roy, M. Touhiduzzaman and B. Alam, “Distribution of Radionuclides in Soil Samples in and around Dhaka City,” Applied Radiation and Isotope, Vol. 49, No. 1, 1998, pp. 133-137. doi:10.1016/S0969-8043(97)00232-7
[15] M. Nurul Alam, M. I. Chowdhury, M. Kamal, M. A. Rab Molla and M. A. Ammam, “Radioactivity Monitoring of Food and Environment Radioactivity Testing Laboratory, Chittagong,” Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, RTL-1, October 1987-December 1990.
[16] S. Ali, M. Tufail, K. Jamie, A. Ahmed and H. A. Khan, “Gamma-Ray Activity and Dose Rate of Brick Samples from Some Area of North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan,” Science of total Environment, Vol. 187, No. 3, 1996, pp. 247-252. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(96)05109-1
[17] J. R. Rosell, X. Ortega and X. Dies, “Natural and Artificial Radionuclides on the Northeast Coast of Spain,” Health Physics, Vol. 60, No. 5, 1991, pp. 709-712. doi:10.1097/00004032-199105000-00010
[18] H. R. Saad and D. Al-Azmi, “Radioactivity Concentrations in Sediments and Their Correlation to the Coastal Structure in Kuwait,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 56, No. 6, 2002, pp. 991-997. doi:10.1016/S0969-8043(02)00061-1
[19] M. N. Alam, M. I. Chowdhury, M. Kamal, S. Ghose, M. N. Islam and M. N. Mustafa, “The 226Ra, 232Th and 40K Activities in Beach Sand Minerals and Beach Soils of Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh,” Journal Environmental Radioactivity, Vol. 46, No. 2, 1999, pp. 243-250. doi:10.1016/S0265-931X(98)00143-X

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.