Assessment of Cadmium, Mercury and Lead contents of frozen Eurorean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758) and Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L., 1758) fillet from Turkey


In this study, trace metals [Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg) and Lead (Pb)] consentration of 76 pieces of frozen European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax Linnaeus-1758) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus-1758) fillets, produced and marketed in Turkey, were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave damp burning process, and results obtained were assessed in terms of public health. This study was conducted from June 2010 to July 2011. At the end of study, maximum heavy metal levels for sea bass and sea bream fillets were determined as 256.50, 216.22 μg/kg for Cd; 414.79, 338.46 μg/kg for Hg ve 1047.61, 147.14 μg/kg for Pb, respectively. At the end of the study, the levels of cadmium (for 3 samples) and lead (for 1 samples) were higher than the recommended legal limits of the European Union for human consumption. It was detected that the fillets which were analyzed was good quality from the point of cadmium, mercury and lead contents.

Share and Cite:

Yabanli, M. , Alparslan, Y. and Baygar, T. (2012) Assessment of Cadmium, Mercury and Lead contents of frozen Eurorean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758) and Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L., 1758) fillet from Turkey. Agricultural Sciences, 3, 669-673. doi: 10.4236/as.2012.35081.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Uluozlu, O. D., Tuzen, M., Mendil, D. and Soylak, M. (2007) Trace metal content in nine species of fish from the Black and Aegean Seas, Turkey. Food Chemistry, 104, 835–840
[2] Celik, U. and Oehlenschlager, J. (2007) High contents of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper in popular fishery products sold in Turkish supermarkets. Food Control, 18, 258–261.
[3] Kucuksezgin, F., Altay, O., Uluturhan, E. and Kontas, A. (2001) Trace metal and organochlorine residue levels in red mullet (Mullus barbatus) from the eastern Aegean, Turkey. Water Research, 35(9), 2327–2332.
[4] Sivaperumal, P., Sankar, T. V. and Viswanathan Nair, P. G. (2007) Heavy metal concentrations in fish, shellfish and fish products from internal markets of India visa-vis international standards. Food Chemistry, 102, 612–620.
[5] Dural, M., Lugal Goksu, M. Z. and Ozak, A. A. (2007) Investigation of heavy metal levels in economically important fish species captured from the Tuzla lagoon. Food Chemistry, 102, 415–421.
[6] Hajeb, P., Jinap, S., Ismail, A., Fatimah, A. B., Jamilah, B. and Rahim, M. A. (2009) Assessment of mercury level in commonly consumed marine fishes in Malaysia. Food Control, 20, 79-84.
[7] Usydus, Z., Szlinder-Richert, J., Polak-Juszczak, L., Komar, K., Adamczyk, M., Malesa-Ciecwierz, M. and Ruczynska, W. (2009) Fish products available in Polish market – Assessment of the nutritive value and human exposure to dioxins and other contaminants. Chemosphere, 74, 1420-1428.
[8] Cabanero, A. I., Madrid, Y. and Cámara, C. (2004) Selenium and mercury bioaccessibility in fish samples: an in vitro digestion method. Analytica Chimica Acta, 526, 51-61.
[9] Anonymous (2009) Drinking water contaminants. United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 816-F-09-004.
[10] Flick, D. F., Kraybill, H. F. and Dlmitroff, J. M. (1971) Toxic effects of cadmium: A review. Environmental Research, 4(2), 71-85.
[11] M. Hutton, “Human Health Concerns of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium and Arsenic”, In: T. C. Hutchinson and K. M. Meema Eds., Lead, Mercury, Cadmium and Arsenic in the Environment, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York, 1987, pp. 53-68.
[12] Mozaffarian, D. and Rimm, E. B. (2006) Fish intake, contaminants, and human health, evaluating the risk and the benefits. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(15), 1885-1899.
[13] Zahir, F., Rizwi, S. J., Haq, S. K., Khan and R. H. (2005) Low dose mercury toxicity and human health. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 20, 351-360.
[14] Chen, C. T. and Huang, W. P. (2002) A High Selective Fluorescent Chemosensor for Lead Ions. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 124, 6246-6247.
[15] Anonimous (2006) Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Commission regulation (EC) No 1881/2006.
[16] Dutta, T. K. and Kaviraj, A. (2001) Acute toxicity of cadmium to fish Labeo rohite and copepod Diaptomus forbesi pre-exposed to CaO and KMnO4. Chemosphere, 42(8), 955-958.
[17] Dural, M., Lugal Goksu, M. Z., Ozak, A. A. and Derici, B. (2006) Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in different tissues of Dicentrarchus labrax L, 1758, Sparus aurata L., 1758 and Mugil cephalus L., 1758 from the Camlik Lagoon of the Eastern Cost of Mediterranean (Turkey). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 118, 65-74.
[18] Alasalvar, C., Taylor, K. D. A., Zubcov, E., Shahidi, F. and Alexis, M. (2002) Differentiation of cultured and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): total lipid content, fatty acid and trace mineral composition. Food Chemistry, 79, 145-150.
[19] Voegborlo, R. B. and Adimado, A. A. (2010) A simple classical wet digestion technique fort he determination of total mercury in fish tissue by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry in a low technology environment. Food Chemistry, 123, 936-940.
[20] Voegborlo, R. B., El-Methnani, A. M. and Abedin, M. Z. (1999) Mercury, cadmium and lead content of canned tuna fish. Food Chemistry, 67, 341-345.
[21] Abreu, S. N., Pereira, E., Vale, C. and Duarte, A. C. (2000) Accumulation of mercury in sea bass from a contaminated lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40(4), 293-297.
[22] Minganti, V., Drava, G., Pellegrini, R. and Siccardi, C. (2010) Trace elements in farmed and wild gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(11), 2022-2025.
[23] Mol, S. (2011) Determination of trace metals in canned anchovies and canned rainbow trouts. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 49, 348-351
[24] Hsu, P-C. and Guo., Y. L. (2002) Antioxidant nutrients and lead toxicity. Toxicology, 180: 33-34.
[25] Jarup, L. (2003) Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British Medical Bulletin, 68, 167-182.
[26] Türkmen, M., Türkmen, A., Tepe, Y., Tore, Y. and Ates, A. (2009) Determination of metals in fish species from Aegean and Mediterranean seas. Food Chemistry, 113, 233-237.
[27] Yilmaz, A. B. (2005) Comparison of heavy metal levels of grey mullet (Mugil cephalus L.) and sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) caught in Iskenderun Bay (Turkey). Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 29, 257-262.
[28] Mendil, D., Demirci, Z., Tuzen, M. and Soylak, M. (2010) Seasonal investigation of trace element contents in commercially valuable fish species from the Black sea, Turkey. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48, 865–870.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.