Share This Article:

Impact of a Radio Frequency Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) System on Active Implants

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:307KB) PP. 353-357
DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2012.49049    4,722 Downloads   6,954 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

In view of the omnipresence of electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems in daily life and the increasing number of patients with active implants, there is concern about adverse electromagnetic interference in particular cardiac pacemakers (CPM) and cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), which due to sensing electrocardial signals are particularly vulnerable. To provide quantitative information interference of monopolar CPM and ICD by EAS systems operating at 8.2MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) investigations have been performed by exposing numerical anatomical models of pacemaker patients with implants at the conventional left or right pectoral sites and at the abdomen to magnetic fields of a simulated EAS gate source. Investigation of normal position in the centre and worst case with the back next to the gate showed that adverse interference such as inadequate sensing need not be expected at any position. This applies for conventional sensing thresholds even if the exposure span of existing EAS systems is taken into account. However, if full use is made of the newly expanded exposure budget, adverse interference cannot be excluded.

Cite this paper

N. Leitgeb, F. Niedermayr and C. Fuchs, "Impact of a Radio Frequency Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) System on Active Implants," Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 4 No. 9, 2012, pp. 353-357. doi: 10.4236/jemaa.2012.49049.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] J. H. Bernhardt, A. F. McKinlay, R. Matthes, et al., “Possible Health Risk to the General Public from the Use of Security and Similar Devices,” International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, Munic, 2002.
[2] W. Boivin, J. Coletta and L. Kerr, “Characterization of the Magnetic Fields around Walk-Through and HandHeld Metal Detectors,” Health Physics, Vol. 84, No. 5, 2003, pp. 582-593. doi:10.1097/00004032-200305000-00003
[3] C. Harris, W. Boivin, S. Boyd, J. Coletta, L. Kerr, K. Kempa and S. Aronoiw, “Electromagnetic Field Strength Levels Surrounding Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) Systems,” Health Physics, Vol. 78, No. 1, 2000, pp. 2127. doi:10.1097/00004032-200001000-00005
[4] M. Martinéz-Búrdalo, A. Sanchis, A. Matín and R. Villar, “Comparison of SAR and Induced Current Densities in Adults and Children Exposed to Electromagnetic Fields from Electronic Article Surveillance Devices,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2010, pp. 10411055. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/55/4/009
[5] G. Neubauer, H. Molla-Djaffari, K. D. Pühringer, H. Garn, N. Winkler, H. Prei? and G. Schmid, “Measurement and Safety Assessment of Electromagentic Fields around Anti-Theft Devices (German),” AUVA Report #23,Vienna, 1998.
[6] J. Trulsson, G. Anger and U. Estenberg, “Assessment of Magnetic Fields Surrounding Electronic Article Surveillance Systems in Sweden,” Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 28, No. 8, 2007, pp. 664-666. doi:10.1002/bem.20359
[7] S. J. Seidman, R. Brockman, B. M. Lewis, J. Guag, M. J. Shein, W. J. Clement, J. Kippola, D. Digby, C. Barber and D. Huntwork, “In Vitro Tests Reveqal Sample Radiofrequency Identification Readers Inducing Clinically Significant Electgromagnetic Interference to Implantable Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators,” Heart Rhythm, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2010, pp. 99-107. doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.09.071
[8] W. Irnich, “Electronic Security Systems and active Implantable Medical Devices,” Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, Vol. 25, No. 8, 2002, pp. 1235-1258. doi:10.1046/j.1460-9592.2002.01235.x
[9] R. Frank, “Behaviour of 20 Pacemakers as Patients Pass through 2 Models of Theft-Detection Doors (French),” Ann Cardiol Angiol, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2000, pp. 187-197.
[10] M. E. McIvor, J. Reddinger, E. Floden and R. C. Sheppard, “Study of Pacemaker and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Triggering by Electronic Article Surveillance Devices (SPICED TEAS),” Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, Vol. 21, No. 10, 1998, pp. 1847-1861. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8159.1998.tb00002.x
[11] J. Mugica, L. Henry and H. Podeur, “Study of Interactions between Permanent Pacemakers and Electronic Antitheft Surveillance Systems,” Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2000, pp. 333-337.
[12] N. Leitgeb, F. Niedermayr, R. Neubauer and G. Loos, “Risk of Pacemaker Patients by TASER X26 Contact Mode Application,” Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Application, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2012, pp. 96-100.
[13] P. J. Dimbylow, “FDTD Calculations of the Whole Body Averaged SAR in an Anatomically Realistic Voxel Model of the Human Body from 1MHz to 1GHz,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 42, No. 3, 1997, pp. 479-490. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/42/3/003
[14] S. R. Gabriel, W. Lau and C. Gabriel, “The Dielectric Properties of Biologic Tissues: Measurement in the Frequency Range 10 Hz 20 GHz,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 41, No. 11, 1996, pp. 2251-2269. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/41/11/002
[15] N. Leitgeb, F. Niedermayr, R. Neubauer and G. Loos, “Interference of Implanted Cardiac Pacemakers with TASER X26 Dart Mode Application,” Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 57, No. 3, 2012, pp. 201-206. doi:10.1515/bmt-2012-0002
[16] T. Weiland, “A Method for Discretically Solving Maxwell’s Equations for Six-Component Fields (German),” International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 31, 1977, pp. 16-120.
[17] U. Estenberg, G. Anger and J. Trulsson, “Mapping of Magnetic Fields Surrounding EAS and RFID Systems,” SSI Rapport #3, Stockholm, 2006.
[18] International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric and Magnetic Fields (11 Vol. No. 2010, pp.
[19] European Standards, “EN 45502-1. Active Implantable Medical Devices. Part 1: General Requirements for Safety, Marking and Information to be Provided by the Manufacturer,” 1997.
[20] European Standards, “EN 45502-2-1. Active Implantable Medical Devices. Part 2-1: Particular Requirements for Active Implantable Medical Devices Intended to Treat Bradyarrhythmia (Cardiac Pacemakers),” 2003.
[21] European Standards, “EN 45502-2-2. Active Implantable Medical Devices. Part 2-1: Particular Requirements for Active Implantable Medical Devices Intended to Treat Tachyarrhythmia (Includes Implantable Defibrillators),” 2003.
[22] American National Standards Institute/Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation PC69, “Active Implantable Medical Devices—Electromagnetic Compatibility—EMC Test Protocols for Implantable Cardiac Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators,” 2007.
[23] International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300 GHz),” Health Physics, Vol. 74, No. 4, 1998, pp. 494522.
[24] A. Markewitz, “Annual Report on the German Cardiac Pacemaker Register,” 2009. http://www.pacemakerregister.de

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.