Effect of Magnesium and Calcium as Spheroidizers on the Graphite Morphology in Ductile Cast Iron


This study investigated the effect of magnesium and calcium as spheroidizers on the graphite microstructure in cast iron. The cast iron samples were melted in an induction furnace with charge of known composition and, magnesium and calcium of known percentages were added as spheriodizers to the molten metal in the mould during the casting process. From the microstructure of the as- cast specimens it was observed that the use of 100% Mg and a combined addition of 60% and 40%Ca as spheriodizers produced graphite spheroids instead of graphite flakes in the cast iron microstructure. The use of 100% Ca addition resulted in the production of graphite flakes in the specimen microstructure. The use of 80% Mg and 20% Ca resulted in the production of a chunky, stubby graphite microstructure, while the additions of 50% Mg and 50% Ca, 40%Mg and 60% Ca, and 20% Mg and 80% Ca resulted in the microstructure having a flaky graphite microstructure.

Share and Cite:

O. Oluwole, O. Olorunniwo, O. Ogundare, P. Atanda and O. Oridota, "Effect of Magnesium and Calcium as Spheroidizers on the Graphite Morphology in Ductile Cast Iron," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 6 No. 1, 2007, pp. 25-37. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2007.61003.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Rajan T.V., Sharma C.P and Sharma, A. (1988): “Heat Treatment, Principles and Techniques, 1st e. Prentice Hall, India.
[2] Heine R.W., Coper C.R. and Rosenthal P.C (1976): “Principles of Engineering alloys”, 2nded. Tata Mcgraw – Hill, New Delhi
[3] Smith W.F., (1993): “Structure and properties of Engineering alloys”, 2nd ed. McGraw- Hill,New York
[4] Sergeant G.F. and Evans E.R. (1978): “The production and properties of compacted graphite iron”, Britian Foundryman, Vol 71, pg 115
[5] Elliot R. (1988): “ Cast iron Technology”, 1st ed. Butterworth, London
[6] Landefeld C.F. (1980): “Thermochemistry of cast iron refractor reactions” American Foundry Society Transaction Vol. 88 pg 507
[7] John V. B. (1992): “Introduction to Engineering Materials” 3rd ed. Macmillian press Ltd,London
[8] Dixon R.H.T and Hinchley D. (1984): “ Ferrosilicon magnesium alloy development for the production of Spheroidized Graphite iron in 1983, Britian Foundryman, Vol 77 pg 5
[9] Dawson J.V (1961), “ Factors influencing the inoculation of cast iron”, BCIRA Journal Vol 9 pg 199
[10] Walton C.F and Opar T.J. (1981): “Iron casting handbook covering data on Grey, Malleable and ductile iron, Iron casting Society Inc. New York
[11] Davies D. J and Oleman L.A (1983) : “ The structure, Properties and Heat treatment of metals,” Pitman books Ltd, London.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.