Brand Relationships: A Personality-Based Approach

DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.32026   PDF   HTML     9,465 Downloads   20,529 Views   Citations


The authors investigated the relationship between brand personality and brand relationships. The conceptual model was based on the hypothesis that brand personality may nurture specific consumer-brand relationships and that these relationships may influence the quality of the ties that consumers develop with brands. An instrument from intimate interpersonal relationships was used to measure consumer-brand relationships. An SEM analysis conducted on a sample of 733 consumer-brand relationships, involving nine highly known brands of different product categories, gave support to the theory. The research offers two significant contributions by: 1) Emphasizing the role of consumer-brand relationship in understanding multi-brand, symbolic consumption and 2) Offering a holistic perspective in the understanding of brand personality.

Share and Cite:

H. Nobre, K. Becker and C. Brito, "Brand Relationships: A Personality-Based Approach," Journal of Service Science and Management, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2010, pp. 206-217. doi: 10.4236/jssm.2010.32026.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] D. A. Aaker, “Building Strong Brands,” Free Press, New York, 1996.
[2] J. Aaker, S. Fournier and S. A. Brasel, “When Good Brands Do Bad,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2004, pp. 1-16.
[3] P. Aggarwal, “The Effects of Brand Relationship Norms on Consumer Attitudes and Behavior,” Journal of Consu- mer Research, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2004, pp. 87-101.
[4] M. Blackston, “Beyond Brand Personality: Building Brand Relationships,” In: D. A. Aaker & A. L. Biel, Eds., Brand Equity and Advertising: Advertising’s Role in Building Strong Brands, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hilsdale, New Jersey, 1993, pp. 113-124.
[5] S. Fournier, “Toward the Development of Relationship Theory at the Level of the Product and Brand,” In: F. R. Kardes and M. Sujan, Eds., Advances in Consumer Research, Association for Consumer Research, Provo, Vol. 22, 1995, pp. 661-662.
[6] S. Fournier, “Consumers and their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1998, pp. 343-373.
[7] S. Fournier and J. L. Yao, “Reviving Brand Loyalty: A Reconceptualization within the Framework of Consumer- Brand Relationships (Working Paper),” Harvard Business School, Boston, 1996.
[8] J. Jacoby and R. Chestnut, “Brand Loyalty,” Ronald Press, New York, 1978.
[9] K. L. Keller, “Brand Synthesis: The Multidimensionality of Brand Knowledge,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 29, 2003, pp. 595-600.
[10] J. L. Aaker, “Dimensions of Brand Personality,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1997, pp. 347-356.
[11] J. L. Aaker, V. Benet-Martinez and J. Garolera, “Cons- umption Symbols as Carriers of Culture: A Study of Japanese and Spanish Brand Personality Constructs. Jour- nal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 81, No. 3, 2001, pp. 492-508.
[12] G. J. O. Fletcher, J. A. Simpson, G. Thomas and L. Giles, “Ideals in Intimate Relationships,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 76, No. 1, 1999, pp. 72-89.
[13] P. T. Jr. Costa and R. R. McCrae, “The NEO Personality Manual,” Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, 1985.
[14] O. P. John and S. Srivastava, “The Big Five Trait Taxonomy: History, Measurement, and Theoretical Perspectives,” In: L. A. Pervin and O. P. John, Eds., Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 2nd Edition, Guildford Press, New York, 1999, pp. 102-138.
[15] R. R. McCrae and P. C. Jr. Costa, “The Structure of Interpersonal Traits: Wiggins’s Circumplex and the Five- Factor Model,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 56, No. 4, 1989, pp. 586-595.
[16] I. Altman and D. A. Taylor, “Social Penetration: The Development of Interpersonal Relationships,” Holt, Rine- hart and Winston, New York, 1973.
[17] D. E. Allen and J. Olson, “Conceptualizing and Creating Brand Personality: A Narrative Theory Approach,” In: J. Aaker & S. Fournier, Eds., A Brand as a Character, a Partner and a Person: Three Perspectives on the Question of Brand Personality, pp. 392-393; In: F. R. Kardes & M. Sujan, Eds., Advances in Consumer Research, Association for Consumer Research, Provo, UT, Vol. 22, 1995, pp. 391-395.
[18] K. Storbacka, T. Strandvik and C. Grönroos, “Managing Customer Relationships for Profit: The Dynamics of Relationship Quality,” International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 5, No. 5, 1994, pp. 21-38.
[19] M. S. Clark, R. Ouellette, M. C. Powell and S. Milberg, “Recipient’s Mood, Relationship Type and Helping,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1987, pp. 94-103.
[20] A. E. Auhagen and R. A. Hinde, “Individual Character- istics and Personal Relationships,” Personal Relationships, Vol. 4, No. 11, 1997, pp. 63-84.
[21] Superbrands, “Superbrands Portugal 2005,” Retrieved February 2007. http://www.superbrands. com.
[22] Interbrand, “The 100 Best Global Brands by Value 2005,” Retrieved April 2006. http://www.interbrand. com.
[23] Automóvel Club de Portugal, “Análise de Mercado em 2006,” Retrieved October 2006. 2006.pdf.
[24] J. Lannon, “Asking the Right Questions: What do People Do with Advertising?” In: D. A. Aaker & A. Biel, Eds., Equity and Advertising: Advertising’s Role in Building Strong Brands, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hilsdale, New Jersey, 1993, pp. 143-162.
[25] J. Kapferer and G. Laurent, “La sensibilité aux marques, ” In: J. Kapferer & J. Thoenig, Eds., La Marque: Moteur de la Competitivité des Entreprises et de la Croissance de l’Économie, McGraw- Hill, Paris, 1989, pp. 93-124.
[26] Instituto Nacional de Estatística, “Census 2001–Resul- tados Definitivos,” INE, Portugal, 2002.
[27] J. W. Berry, “On Cross-Cultural Comparability,” Inter- national Journal of Psychology, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1969, pp. 119-128.
[28] H. Baumgartner, “Toward a Personology of the Con- sumer,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 29, No. 2, September 2002, pp. 286-292.
[29] D. P. McAdams, “What do We Know when We Know a Person?” Journal of Personality, Vol. 63, No. 3, 1995, pp. 365-396.
[30] P. T. Jr. Costa and R. R. McCrae, “Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Professional Manual,” Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, 1992.
[31] M. P. Lima, “NEO-PI-R: Contextos teóricos e Psico- métri-cos ‘OCEAN’ ou ‘Iceberg’?” Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Faculdade de Psicologia e Ciências da Educação, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal, 1997.
[32] A. Lancastre and L. F. Lages, “The Relationship between Buyer and a B2B e-Marketplace: Cooperation Determinants in an Electronic Market Context,” Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 35, 2006, pp. 774-789.
[33] J. J. Jr. Cronin and S. A. Taylor, “Measuring Service Quality: A Reexamination and Extension,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 56, No. 3, 1992, pp. 55-68.
[34] J. R. Austin, J. A. Siguaw and A. S. Mattila, “A Re-Examination of the Generalizability of the Aaker Brand Personality Measurement Framework,” Journal of Strategic Marketing, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2003, pp. 77-92.
[35] J. L. Arbuckle, “Amos 16.0 User’s Guide,” Amos Deve- lopment, Spring House, 2007.
[36] J. C. Nunnally, “Psychometric Theory,” Mc-Graw-Hill, New York, 1978.
[37] R. P. Bagozzi and U. M. Dholakia, “Antecedents and Purchase Consequences of Customer Participation in Small Group Brand Communities,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2006, pp. 45- 61.
[38] P. M. Bentler, “EQS Manual,” BMDP, Los Angeles, CA, 1989.
[39] J. F. Jr. Hair, R. E. Anderson, R. L. Tatham and W. C. Black, “Multivariate Data Analysis: With Readings,” 5th Edition, Prentice Hall, London, 1998.
[40] R. P. Bagozzi and G. R. Foxall, “Construct Validation of a Measure of Adaptative-Innovative Cognitive Styles in Consumption,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1996, pp. 201-213.
[41] J. Anderson and D. Gerbing, “Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 103, No. 3, 1988, pp. 411-423.
[42] C. Fornell and D. F. Larcker, “Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Mea- surement Error,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1981, pp. 39-50.
[43] G. T. Gundlach, R. S. Achrol and J. T. Mentzer, “The Structure of Commitment in Exchange,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 59, No. 1, 1995, pp. 78-92.
[44] S. Fournier and L. Lee, “Getting Brand Communities Right,” Harvard Business Review, 2009, pp. 105-111.
[45] K. Favaro, T. Romberger and D. Meer, “Five Rules for Retailing in a Recession,” Harvard Business Review, 2009.
[46] A. Drolet and J. Aaker, “Off-Target? Changing Cognitive-Based Attitudes,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2002, pp. 59-68.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.