Cultural Eating Practices among Jordanians


Culture has an enormous impact on individuals’ food choices and practices. This research aimed to screen cultural eating practices among Jordanians. Jordanian adults (N = 4750) completed a survey with regard to common eating practices in Jordan. Practices were classified into 4 themes, namely regular eating practices (7 practices), seasonal eating practices (4 practices), eating practices in social occasions (6 practices), and eating practices in religious occasions (10 practices). Interestingly, most nutritional practices during Ramadan and Eids (religious occasions) were agreed upon from 100% of the participating sample. In conclusion, culture in Jordan has a huge influences eating practices and food choice. Negative culture’s influence over eating practices may exist, thus increasing awareness about unhealthy eating practices related to culture is necessary.

Share and Cite:

H. Bawadi, Z. Al-Hamdan, H. Bawadi, O. Ershidat, F. Hammad and L. Agraib, "Cultural Eating Practices among Jordanians," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 6, 2012, pp. 790-795. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.36106.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] College of Registered Nurses of Nova Scotia, “Position Statement: Promoting Culturally Competent Care,” College of Registered Nurses of Nova Scotia, Halifax, 2006.
[2] T. Barer-Stein, “You Eat What You Are: People, Culture, and Food Traditions,” Firefly Books, Willowdale, 1999.
[3] K. P. Sucher and P. G. Kittler, “Food and Culture,” Wadsworth, Belmont, 2007.
[4] L. C. Libard, A. Namageyo-Funa, L. Jack and E. Gregg, “Views from Within and Beyond: Illness Narratives of African-American Men with Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Spectrum, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2004, pp. 219-224. doi:10.2337/diaspect.17.4.219
[5] K. Bhui, “Culture, Religion and Health Care,” International Journal of Integrated Care, Vol. 10, 2010, pp. 5759.
[6] B. Mak, J. Woo, A. Bowling, F. Wong and C. Hing, “Health Care Prioritization in Ageing Societies: Influence of Age, Education, Health Literacy and Culture,” Health Policy, Vol. 100, No. 2, 2011, pp. 219-233. doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.08.015
[7] M. Kenawi, “Chemical Composition, Nutritional Value, and in-Vitro Protein Digestibility of Three Traditional Breakfast Foods in Jordan,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 58, No. 3, 2003, pp. 1-6. doi:10.1023/B:QUAL.0000041177.65248.b4
[8] A. Raal, U. Paaver, E. Arak, and A. Orav, “Content and Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus serpyllum L. Growing Wild in Estonia,” Medicina,Vol. 40, No. 4, 2004, pp. 795-800.
[9] E. Vigo, A. Cepeda, O. Gualillo and R. Perez-Fernandez, “In-Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Eucalyptus globulus and Thymus vulgaris: Nitric Oxide Inhibition in J774A.1 Murine Macrophages,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol. 56, No. 2, 2004, pp. 257-263. doi:10.1211/0022357022665
[10] H. Bawadi and S. Al-Sahawneh, “Developing a MealPlanning Exchange List for Traditional Dishes in Jordan,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 108, No. 5, 2007, pp. 840-846. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.02.016
[11] J. El-Qudah, “Dietary Intake of Selected Common Vegetable Foods and Their Total Carotenoids Determination,” American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2008, pp. 729-733. doi:10.3844/ajabssp.2008.729.733
[12] T. Weinbrenner, M. Fito and R. de la Torre, G. T. Saez, P. Rijken, C. Tormos, S. Coolen, M. F. Albaladejo, S. Abanades, H. Schroder, J. Marrugat and M. I. Covas, “Olive Oils High in Phenolic Compounds Modulate Oxidative/Antioxidative Status in Men,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 134, No. 9, 2004, pp. 2314-2321.
[13] I. Leonauser, S. Dorandt, S. Willmund and J. Honsel, “The Benefit of the Mediterranean Diet,” European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2004, pp. i31-i38.
[14] E. Medina, A. de Castro, C. Romero and M. Brenes, “Comparison of the Concentrations of Phenolic Compounds in Olive Oils and Other Plant Oils: Correlation with Antimicrobial Activity,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, No. 14, 2006, pp. 4954-4961. doi:10.1021/jf0602267
[15] V. Solfrizzi, F. Panza, F. Torres, F. Mastroianni, A. Del Parigi, A. Venezia and A. Capurso, “High Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Intake Protects against Age-Related Cognitive Decline,” Neurology, Vol. 52, No. 8, 1999, pp. 1563-1569. doi:10.1212/WNL.52.8.1563
[16] H. Tanaka, K. Taira, M. Arakawa, C. Urasaki, Y. Yamamoto, H. Okuma, E. Uezu, Y. Sugita and S. Shirakawa, “Short Naps and Exercise Improve Sleep Quality and Mental Health in the Elderly,” Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, Vol. 56, No. 3, 2002, pp. 233-234. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1819.2002.00995.x
[17] M. Takahashi, H. Fukuda and H. Arito, “Brief Naps during Post-Lunch Rest: Effects on Alertness, Performance, and Autonomic Balance,” European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, Vol. 78, No. 2, 1998, pp. 93-98. doi:10.1007/s004210050392
[18] C. Emmanuel, H. Jan and G. Jean-Paul, “Medical Therapy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease,” Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2007, pp. 434-439.
[19] Jordan Tourism Board, 2010. .
[20] E. Scott and K. Vanick, “A Survey of Hand Hygiene Practices on a Residential College Campus,” American Journal of Infection Control, Vol. 35, No. 10, 2007, pp. 694-696. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2007.01.009
[21] D. H. Tambekar, S. D. Shirsat S. R. Kakde and A. Ambekar, “Hand Hygiene and Health: An Epidemiological Study of Students in Amravati,” African Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2009, pp. 26-30.
[22] J. Barker, D. Stevens and S. F. Bloomfield, “Spread and Prevention of Some Common Viral Infections in Community Facilities and Domestic Homes,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 91, No. 1, 2001, pp. 7-21. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01364.x
[23] A. M. Nuutila, R. Puupponen-Pimi?, M. Aarni and K. M. Oksman-Caldentey, “Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Onion and Garlic Extracts by Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation and Radical Scavenging Activity,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 81, No. 4, 2003, pp. 485-493. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00476-4
[24] K. Yamada, A. Naemura, N. Sawashita, Y. Noguchi and J. Yamamoto, “An Onion Variety Has Natural Antithrombotic Effect as Assessed by Thrombosis/Thrombolysis Models in Rodents,” Thrombosis Research, Vol. 114, No. 3, 2004, pp. 213-220. doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2004.06.007
[25] C. G. Sheela, K. Kumud and K. T. Augusti, “Anti-Diabetic Effects of Onion and Garlic Sulfoxide Amino Acids in Rats,” Planta Medica, Vol. 61, No. 4, 1995, pp. 356357. doi:10.1055/s-2006-958099
[26] U. Kalus, G. Pindur, F. Jung, B. Mayer, H. Radtke, K. Bachmann, C. Mrowietz, J. Koscielny and H. Kiesewetter, “Influence of the Onion as an Essential Ingredient of the Mediterranean Diet on Arterial Blood Pressure and Blood Fluidity,” Arzneimittel-Forschung/Drug Research, Vol. 50, No. 9, 2000, pp. 795-801.
[27] E. M. Matheson, A. G. Mainous and M. A. Carnemolla, “The Association between Onion Consumption and Bone Density in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal NonHispanic White Women 50 Years and Older,” Menopause, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2009, pp. 756-759. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e31819581a5
[28] G. Joachim, “The Influence of Time on Dietary Data: Differences in Reported Summer and Winter Food Consumption,” Nutrition Health, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1997, pp. 33-43. doi:10.1177/026010609701200104
[29] D. R. Shahar, N. Yerushalmi, F. Lubin, P. Froom, A. Shahar and E. Kristal-Boneh, “Seasonal Variations in Dietary Intake Affect the Consistency of Dietary Assessment,” European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2001, pp. 29-33. doi:10.1023/A:1017542928978
[30] D. C. Mitchell, R. Frank, T. J. Hartman and J. M. Curran, “Consumption of Dry Beans, Peas, and Lentils Could Improve Diet Quality in the US Population,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 109, No. 5, 2009, pp. 909-913. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.02.029
[31] D. Thavarajah, P. Thavarajah A. Sarker and A. Vandenberg, “Lentils (Lens Culinaris Medikus Subspecies Culinaris): A Whole Food for Increased Iron and Zinc Intake,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 57, No. 12, 2009, pp. 5413-5419. doi:10.1021/jf900786e
[32] E. M. Glaser, “The Effects of Cooling and of Various Means of Warming on the Skin and Body Temperature of Men,” Journal of Physiology, Vol. I09, No. 3-4, 1949, pp. 66-379.
[33] L. Barros, A. M. Carvalho and I. C. Ferreira, “Leaves, Flowers, Immature Fruits and Leafy Flowered Stems of Malva Sylvestris: A Comparative Study of the Nutraceutical Potential and Composition,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1466-1472. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2010.03.012
[34] K. Abak and A. Düzenli, “Use of Some Wild Plants as Vegetables in Turkey,” Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 242, 1989, pp. 107-114.
[35] M. Abdullah and A. Amr, “A Study of Some Chemical and Physical Changes in Soybean Oil and Palmolein during Falafel Frying,” Thesis in University of Jordan, Amman, 1999.
[36] WHO (World Health Organization), MOH (Ministry of Health) and MOA (Ministry of Agriculture), “Nutrition in Jordan: A Review of the Current Nutritional Trends and Major Strategic Directions of the National Food and Nutrition Policy,” WHO, Amman, 2006.
[37] A. Mustapha, I. A. Yakasai and I. A. Aguye, “Effect of Tamarindus indica L. on the Bioavailability of Aspirin in Healthy Human Volunteers,” European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1996, pp. 223-226. doi:10.1007/BF03189717

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.