The Relationship between Portuguese Adolescent Perception of Parental Styles, Social Support, and School Behaviour


The present article describes preliminary results of a study that aims to analyse the relationship among Portuguese adolescent perception of parental styles, social support received from family and peers and their school behaviour. Participants were 537 adolescents aged between 14 and 16. The “Parental Author- ity Questionnaire”, the “Perceived Social Support-Friends Scale” and “Perceived Social Support-Family Scale” were used to measure adolescent perceptions. Overall, Portuguese adolescents perceive their parents as using predominantly a democratic parental style. Associations between school behaviour and parental styles show that “well-behaved” adolescents perceive their parents as less permissive. On the other hand, adolescents who misbehave perceive their parents as more permissive and authoritarian. As regards the relationship between perceived school behaviour and social support, adolescents recognise receiving greater support from peers than from family, and adolescents who “often behave badly” are those who refer to receiving less social support, either from the family or peers.

Share and Cite:

Silva, J. , Morgado, J. & Maroco, J. (2012). The Relationship between Portuguese Adolescent Perception of Parental Styles, Social Support, and School Behaviour. Psychology, 3, 513-517. doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.37074.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Alcón, M. C. (2002). Estilos educativos paternos: Descriptión e im- pacto diferencial en los patrones de desarollo de ninos com capaci- dad intellectual normal y ninos superdotados. Revista de Ciências de la educación, 189, 75-93.
[2] Antunes, C., & Fontaine, A. N. (1994). Diferen?as na percep??o de apoio social na adolescência: Adapta??o de uma escala, o “Social Support Appraisals” de Vaux et al. (1980). Cadernos de Consulta Psicológica, 10, 115-127.
[3] Aquilino, W. E., & Supple, A. J. (2001). Long-term effects of parenting practices during adolescence on well-being outcomes in young adulthood. Journal of Family Issues, 22, 289-308. doi:10.1177/019251301022003002
[4] Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of the preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88.
[5] Baumrind, D. (1973). The development of instrumental competence through socialization. In A. Pick (Ed.), Minnesota symposia on child psychology (pp. 3-46). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
[6] Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescence competency and substance use. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 56-95. doi:10.1177/0272431691111004
[7] Baumrind, D. (2005). Patterns of parental authority and adolescent autonomy. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 108, 61-69. doi:10.1002/cd.128
[8] Bernier, A., Larose, S., Boivin, M., & Soucy, N. (2004). Attachment state of mind: Implications of adjustment to college. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19, 783-806. doi:10.1177/0743558403260096
[9] Brendt, E. J. (1989). Obtaining support from friends during childhood and adolescence. In D. Belle (Ed.), Features of Friendship and Types of Social Support (pp. 308-331). New York: Wiley Pub.
[10] Buri, J. R. (1991). Parental authority questionnaire. Journal of Person- ality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa5701_13
[11] Ciariano, S., Kliewer, W., Bonino, S., & Bosma, H. A. (2008). Parent- ing and adolescent well-being in two European countries. Adole- scence, 43, 99-117.
[12] Colarossi, L. G., & Eccles, J. (2000). A prospective study of adole- scent’s peer support: Gender differences and the influence of parental relationships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 661-678. doi:10.1023/A:1026403922442
[13] Cole, M., & Cole, S. R. (2001). The development of children (4th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.
[14] Corcoran, K., & Fisher, J. (2000). Measures for clinical practice: A source book (3rd ed.). New York: The Free Press.
[15] Crosnoe, R. (2001). Academic orientation and parental involvement in education during high school. Sociology of Education, 74, 210-230. doi:10.2307/2673275
[16] Crosnoe, R., & Elder, G. (2004). Family dinamics, supportive relation- ships and educational resilience during adolescence. Journal of Family Issues, 25, 571-602. doi:10.1177/0192513X03258307
[17] Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 487-493. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.113.3.487
[18] Darling, N. (1999). Parenting style and its correlates. Eric Digest.
[19] Dornbusch, S. M., Ritter, P. L., Leiderman, P. H., Roberts, D. F., & Fraleigh, M. J. (1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child Development, 58, 1244-1257. doi:10.2307/1130618
[20] Durbin, D. L., Darling, N., Steinberg, L., & Brown, B. B. (1993). Par- enting style and peer group membership among European-American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 3, 87-100. doi:10.1207/s15327795jra0301_5
[21] Fletcher, A. C., Darling, N. E., Steinberg, L., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1995). The company they keep: Relation of adolescent’s adjustment and behaviour to their friend’s perceptions of authoritative parenting in the social network. Developmental Psychology, 31, 300-310. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.31.2.300
[22] Fonseca, H. (2002). Compreender os adolescentes. Lisboa: Editorial Presen?a.
[23] Fontaine, A. M. (1995). Estilos educativos familiares e representa??es recíprocas dos pais e dos adolescentes. Actas do II Congresso da Sociedade Portuguesa de Ciências da Educa??o (pp. 195-208). Sociedade Portuguesa de Ciências da Educa??o.
[24] Glasgow, K. L., Dornbusch, S. M., Troyer, L., Steinberg, L., & Ritter, P. L. (1997). Parenting styles, adolescent’s attributions, and educational outcomes in nine heterogeneous schools. Child Development, 68, 507-529. doi:10.2307/1131675
[25] Gouveia Pereira, M., Pedro, I., Amaral, V., Alves Martins, M., & Peixoto, F. (2000). Dinamicas grupais na adolescência. Análise Psico- lógica, 18, 191-201.
[26] Grolnick, W. S. (2003). The psychology of parental control: How well- meant parenting backfires. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
[27] Helsen, M., Vollebergh, W., & Meeurs, W. (2000). Social support from parents and friends and emotional problems in adolescense. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 319-335. doi:10.1023/A:1005147708827
[28] Lamborn, S. D., Mounts, N. S., Steinberg, L., & Ritter, P. L. (1991). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful families. Child Development, 62, 1094-1065. doi:10.2307/1131151
[29] Lopes, A. J. (2003). Problemas de comportamento, problemas de apren- dizagem e problemas de ensinagem. Coimbra: Quarteto.
[30] Matherne, M., & Thomas, A. (2001). Family environment as a pre- dictor of adolescence delinquency. Adolescence, 134, 655-664.
[31] Matta, I. (2001). Psicologia do desenvolvimento e da aprendizagem. Lisboa: Universidade Aberta.
[32] Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Myers, S. S., & Robinson, L. R. (2007). The role of the family context in the development of emotion regulation. Social Development, 16, 361-388. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00389.x
[33] Noller, P. (1990). Relations with parents in adolescence: Process and outcome. In R. Montemayor, G. R. Adams, & T. P. Gullota (Eds.), From Childhood to Adolescence. A transitional period? (pp. 37-77). London: Sage Publishers.
[34] Oliveira, J. H. (2002). (In)Disciplina na sala de aulas: Perspectiva de aluno e professores. Psicologia, Educa??o e Cultura, 6, 69-99.
[35] Procidano, M. E., & Heller, K. (1983). Measures of perceived social support from friends and from family: Three validation studies. American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 1-24. doi:10.1007/BF00898416
[36] Smetana, J. G. (1995). Parenting styles and conceptions of parental authority during adolescence. Child Development, 66, 299-316. doi:10.2307/1131579
[37] Sonuga-Barke, E., Harriso, C., & Hart, N. (2000). Expectativas pare- ntais, características da crian?a e desenvolvimento: Um estudo exploratório com dados longitudinais. Psychologica, 24, 129-141.
[38] Sprinthall, N. A., & Collins, W. A. (2003). Psicologia do adolescente: Uma perspectiva desenvolvimentalista (3rd ed.). Lisboa: Funda??o Calouste Gulbenkian.
[39] Steinberg, L. (2001). We know some things: Parent-adolescent relation- ships in retrospect and prospect. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 1-19. doi:10.1111/1532-7795.00001
[40] Steinberg, L., Elmen, J. D., & Mounts, N. S. (1989). Authoritative parenting, psychosocial maturity, and academic success among adolescents. Child Development, 60, 1425-1436. doi:10.2307/1130932
[41] Steinberg, L., Mounts, N. S., Lamborn, S. D., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1991). Authoritative parenting and adolescent adjustment across varied ecological niches. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 1, 19-36.
[42] Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S. D., Dornbusch, S. M., & Darling, N. (1992). Impact of parenting practices on adolescence achievement: Author- itative parenting, school involvement and encouragement to succeed. Child Development, 63, 1266-1281. doi:10.2307/1131532
[43] Strecht, P. (2005). Vontade de Ser—Textos sobre a Adolescência. Lisboa: Assírio & Alvim.
[44] Veiga, F. H. (2002). Indisciplina e violência na escola—Práticas com- unicacionais para professores e Pais. Coimbra: Livraria Almedina.
[45] Wills, T. A., & Cleary, S. D. (1996). How are social support effects mediated? A test with parental support and adolescence substance abuse. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 937-952. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.71.5.937
[46] Yeh, H. C., & Lempers, J. D. (2004). Perceived sibling relationships and adolescent development. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 133-147. doi:10.1023/B:JOYO.0000013425.86424.0f

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.