Share This Article:

Family stability as a moderator of the relationship between family life changes and sleep behavior

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:168KB) PP. 149-156
DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.22022    4,430 Downloads   8,159 Views   Citations


The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between aspects of family stability and sleep behavior and quality as indicators of health and well-being. Participants were 312 (166 female and 146 male) undergraduate students, ranging in age from 17 to 29 (M = 19.10). Participants’ global and molecular family stability in their families of origin was assessed using the Family Life Changes Survey (FLCS) and the Stability of Activities in the Family Environment (SAFE-R), respectively. Current sleep habits and quality were measured using a modified version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI). Analyses suggest family stability is related to aspects of sleep. Furthermore, it appears molecular family stability moderates the relationship between family life changes, an aspect of global family stability, and subjective sleep quality in college students. Results are important in that they suggest high levels of molecular family stability may buffer against the impact of family life changes on subjective sleep quality.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Malatras, J. , Luft, I. , Sokolowski, K. and Israel, A. (2012) Family stability as a moderator of the relationship between family life changes and sleep behavior. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2, 149-156. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.22022.


[1] Israel, A.C., Roderick, H.A. and Ivanova, M.Y. (2002) A measure of the stability of activities in the family environment. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24, 85-95. doi:10.1023/A:1015336707701
[2] Ivanova, M.Y. and Israel, A.C. (2005) Family stability as a protective factor against the influences of pessimistic attributional style on depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29, 243-251. doi:10.1007/s10608-005-3167-0
[3] Israel, A.C. and Roderick, H.A. (2001). A measure of the stability of family activities: An initial examination. Assessment, 8, 417-424.
[4] Sokolowski, K.L. and Israel, A.C. (2008) Perceived anxiety control as a mediator of the relationship between family stability and adjustment. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 1454-1461. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.02.009
[5] Malatras, J.W. (2009) Self-control as a mediator of the relationship between molecular family stability and adjustment. Master’s Thesis, University at Albany, Albany.
[6] Israel, A.C., Sokolowski, K.L., Maruyama, S., Luft, I.R., Them, M.A., Ivanova, M.Y. and Chalmers, S.M. (2006) Assessing family life changes as an aspect of family stability. Manuscript submitted for publication.
[7] Ivanova, M.Y. and Israel, A.C. (2006) Family stability as a protective factor against psychopathology for urban children receiving psychological services. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 564-570. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3504_7
[8] Bures, R.M. (2003) Childhood residential stability and health at midlife. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1144-1148. doi:10.2105/AJPH.93.7.1144
[9] Leger, D., Schueuer-maier, K., Phillip, P., Paillard, M. and Guilleminault, C. (2001) SF-36: Evaluation of quality of life in severe and mild insomniacs compared with good sleepers. Psycho-somatic Medicine, 63, 49-55.
[10] National Institutes of Health. (2006) In brief: Your guide to healthy sleep. National Institutes of Health Publication No. 06-5800. Accessed 9 September 2009.
[11] Pilcher, J.J., Ginter, D.R. and Sadowsky, B. (1997) Sleep quality versus sleep quantity: Relationships between sleep and measures of health, well-being and sleepiness in college students. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 42, 583- 596. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(97)00004-4
[12] Pilcher J.J. and Ott, E.S. (1998) The relationship between sleep and measures of health and well-being in college students: A repeated measures approach. Behavioral Medi- cine, 23, 170-178. doi:10.1080/08964289809596373
[13] Motivala, S.J. and Irwin, M.R. (2007) Sleep and immunity: Cytokine pathways linking sleep and health outcomes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 21-25. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00468.x
[14] Savard, J., Laroche, L., Simard, S., Ivers, H. and Morin, C.M. (2003) Chronic insomnia and immune functioning. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 211-221. doi:10.1097/01.PSY.0000033126.22740.F3
[15] Beebe, D.W., Fallone, G., Godiwala, N., Flanigan, M., Martin, D., Schaffner, L. and Amin, R. (2008) Feasibility and behavioral effects of an at-home multi-night sleep restriction protocol for adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 915-923. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01885.x
[16] Buboltz, W.C., Soper, B., Brown, F. and Jenkins, S. (2002) Treatment approaches for sleep difficulties in college students. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 15, 229-237. doi:10.1080/09515070210151788
[17] Curkrowicz, K.C., Otamendi, A., Pinto, J.V., Bernert, R.A., Krakow, B. and Joiner, T.E. Jr. (2006) The impact of insomnia and sleep disturbances on depression and suicidality. Dreaming, 16, 1-10. doi:10.1037/1053-0797.16.1.1
[18] Kelly, W.E. (2004) Sleep-length and life satisfaction in a college student sample. College Student Journal, 38, 428- 430.
[19] Pilcher, J.J. and Walters, A.S. (1997) How sleep deprivation affects psychological variables related to college students’ cognitive performance. Journal of American College Health, 46, 121-126. doi:10.1080/07448489709595597
[20] Trockel, M.T., Barnes, M.D. and Egget, D.L. (2000) Health-related variables and academic performance among first-year college students: Implications for sleep and other behaviors. Journal of American College Health, 49, 125- 131. doi:10.1080/07448480009596294
[21] Suen, L.K., Hon, L.K. and Tam, W.W.S. (2008) Association between sleep behavior and sleep-related factors among university students in Hong Kong. Chronobiology International, 25, 760-775. doi:10.1080/07420520802397186
[22] Buboltz, W.C., Brown, F. and Soper, B. (2001) Sleep habits and patterns of college students: A preliminary study. Journal of American College Health, 50, 131-135. doi:10.1080/07448480109596017
[23] Scher, A. (2008) Maternal separation anxiety as a regulator of infants’ sleep. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 618-625.
[24] Adam, E.K., Snell, E.K. and Pendry, P. (2007) Sleep timing and quantity in ecological and family context: A nationally representative time-diary study. Journal of Fam- ily Psychology, 21, 4-19. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.21.1.4
[25] Gregory, A.M., Cas-pi, A., Moffitt, T.E. and Poulton, R. (2006) Family conflict in childhood: A predictor of later insomnia. Sleep, 29, 1063-1067.
[26] Johnson, N. and McMahon, C. (2007) Preschoolers’ sleep behaviour: associations with parental hardiness, sleep-related cognitions and bedtime interactions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 765-773.
[27] Cousins, J.C., Bootzin, R.R., Stevens, S.J., Ruiz, B.S. and Haynes, P.L. (2007). Parental involvement, psychological distress, and sleep: A preliminary examination in sleep-disturbed adolescents with a history of sub-stance abuse. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 104-113. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.21.1.104
[28] Billows, M., Gradisar, M., Dohnt, H., Johnston, A., Mc-Cappin, S. and Hudson, J. (2009) Family disorganization, sleep hygiene, and adolescent sleep disturbance. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38, 745- 752. doi:10.1080/15374410903103635
[29] Hall, M., Buysse, D.J., Nowell, P.D., Nofzinger, E.A., Houck, P., Reynolds, C.F., et al. (2000) Symptoms of stress and depression as correlates of sleep in primary insomnia. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 227-230.
[30] Morin, C.M., Rodrigue, S. and Ivers, H. (2003) Role of stress, arousal, and coping skills in primary insomnia. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 259-267. doi:10.1097/01.PSY.0000030391.09558.A3
[31] Carney, C.E., Edinger, J.D., Meyer, B., Lindman, L. and Istre, T. (2006) Daily activities and sleep quality in college students. Chronobiology International, 23, 623-637. doi:10.1080/07420520600650695
[32] Mindell, J.A. (1999) Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: Bedtime refusal and night wakenings in young children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 24, 465-481. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/24.6.465
[33] Buysse, D.J., Reynolds III, C.F., Monk, T.H., Berman, S.R. and Kupfer, D.J. (1989) The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28, 193-213. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4
[34] Tabachnik, B.G. and Fidell, L.S. (2007) Using Multivariate Statistics. 4th Edition, Pearson Education Inc., Boston.
[35] Cohen, J. (1994) The earth is round (p < 0.05). American Psychologist, 49, 997-1003. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.49.12.997
[36] Chalmers, S.M. (2005) Family stability as a parenting behavior and as a mediator of the relationship between maternal sense of competence and psychosocial adjustment in children. Dissertation, University at Albany, Albany.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.