Occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in development and structure of animal forms: Phylogenetic observations and epigenetic significance

DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.44033   PDF   HTML     8,380 Downloads   13,248 Views   Citations


A survey of zoological literature affirmed the wide occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in the organization of acellular and prokaryotic life forms as well as in some eukaryotic protistans and in the embryonic development and adult forms of many living and fossil remains of metazoan animals. A detailed comparative analysis of the axial skeleton of a fossil fish and humans revealed a new rule of the “nested triad” of bones organized along the proximal to distal axis of limb appendages. This growth pattern and its ubiquity among living vertebrates appear to underlie a profound rule of pattern formation that is dictated in part by the genetics and epigenetic mechanisms of stem cell clonal development.

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Wille, J. (2012) Occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in development and structure of animal forms: Phylogenetic observations and epigenetic significance. Natural Science, 4, 216-232. doi: 10.4236/ns.2012.44033.

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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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