The Exclusion of Black Women from National Leadership Positions in the United States: Taxation with Limited Representation

DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.22017   PDF   HTML     3,492 Downloads   6,596 Views   Citations


This article claims that the United States is progressing well when examined through the racial and cul- tural diversity of its young people aged 29 and younger with earned doctorates. The data show that fe- males in general and Asian and Black females in particular are earning very high proportions of doctorate degrees among individuals aged 29 and younger in 2009 and 2008. For example, of the 117,000 doctorate degrees (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.) held by individuals in the US aged 25 - 29 in 2009, females accounted for 65,000 (55.6%), with Black females and Asian females accounting for 11.1% (13,000) and 10.3% (12,000) respectively. In 2008, of the 14,000 doctorate degrees (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.) held by individuals aged 18 - 24 in the US, females accounted for 11,000 (78.6%), and Black females and Asian females each accounted for 4000 (28.6%). The article points out, however, that while high levels of educational attainment is shown to result in Asian, White and Hispanic women being elected or appointed to the United States Sen- ate, Governor’s Office and the United States Supreme Court, Black American women continue to be ex- cluded from these three national leadership positions—Taxation Without Representation.

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Kaba, A. (2012). The Exclusion of Black Women from National Leadership Positions in the United States: Taxation with Limited Representation. Sociology Mind, 2, 133-140. doi: 10.4236/sm.2012.22017.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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