A Study on the Effects of Family and Delinquent Peers on Juvenile Delinquency in Turkey


The aim of this article is to explore the effects of peers and family on juvenile delinquency. Open-ended and multiple choice questionnaires were applied to 1526 juveniles in two cities of Turkey; Ankara and Istanbul. Consistent with the literature findings showed that the family has an indirect and partial effect on juvenile’s tendency to commit crime because they cannot provide organized social networks, role models, and social controls for their children. On the other hand, by developing a differential association with the juvenile, by which violence and criminal acts are learned, legitimated, supported or encouraged; the peer network has a direct and an incredible influence to initiate the juvenile into crime.

Share and Cite:

Icli, T. & Coban, S. (2012). A Study on the Effects of Family and Delinquent Peers on Juvenile Delinquency in Turkey. Advances in Applied Sociology, 2, 66-72. doi: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.21009.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Adams, R. (1973). Differential association and learning principles revisited. Social Problems, 20, 458-470. doi:10.1525/sp.1973.20.4.03a00060
[2] Akers, R. L., Krohn, M. D., Lanza-Kaduce, L., & Radosevich, M. (1979). Social learning and deviant behavior: A specific test of a general theory. American Sociological Review, 44, 635-655. doi:10.2307/2094592
[3] Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press.
[4] Baron, S. W. (2003). Self-control, social consequences and criminal behavior: Street youth and the general theory of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40, 403-425. doi:10.1177/0022427803256071
[5] Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Tremblay, R. E., & Wanner, B. (2002). Parent and peer effects on delinquency related violence and dating violence: A test of two mediational models. Social Development, 11, 225-244. doi:10.1111/1467-9507.00196
[6] Burgess, R. L., & Akers, R. L. (1966). A differential association-reinforcement theory of criminal behavior. Social Problems, 14, 128-147. doi:10.1525/sp.1966.14.2.03a00020
[7] Chapple, C. L. (2005). Self-control, peer relations and delinquency. Justice Quarterly, 22, 89-106. doi:10.1080/0741882042000333654
[8] Cullen, F. T., & Agnew, R. (2003). Criminological theory: Past to present. Los Angeles, CA: Roxberry Publishing Company.
[9] DeWit, D. J., Offord, D. R., Sanford, M., Rye, B. J., Shain, M., & Wright, R. (2000). The effect of school culture on adolescent behavioral problems: Self-esteem, attachment to learning and peer appro- val of deviance as mediating mechanisms. Canadian Journal of Social Psychology, 16, 15-38.
[10] Downey, G., & Feldman, S. I. (1996). Implications of rejection sensitivity for intimate relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1327-1343. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.70.6.1327
[11] Elliott, D., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
[12] Glueck, S., & Glueck, E. (1974). Delinquency and crime. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Pub.
[13] Gottfredson, M., & Hirshi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
[14] Haynie, D. L. (2002). Friendship networks and delinquency: a relative nature of peer delinquency, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18, 99-134. doi:10.1023/A:1015227414929
[15] Henry, D. B., Tolan P. H., & Gorman-Smith, D. (2001). Longitudinal family and peer group effects on violence and delinquent behavior. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 172-186.
[16] Ingram, J. R., Patchin, J. W., Huebner, B. M., McCluskey, J. D., & Bynum, T. S. (2007). Parents, friends and serious delinquency: An examination of direct and indirect effects among at-risk early adolescents. Criminal Justice Review, 32, 380-400. doi:10.1177/0734016807311436
[17] ??li, T. (2007). Kriminoloji. Ankara: Se?kin Yay?nlar?.
[18] Marcos, A., Bahr, S., & Johnson, R. (1986). Test of bonding/association theory of adolescent drug use. Social Forces, 65, 135-160.
[19] Matsueda, R. L., & Heimer, K. (1987). Race, family structure and delinquency: A test of differential association and social control theories. American Sociological Review, 52, 826-840. doi:10.2307/2095837
[20] McCord, J. (1991). Family relationship, juvenile delinquency and adult criminality. Criminology, 29, 397-417. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.1991.tb01072.x
[21] Ormrod, J. E. (1999). Human learning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[22] Ostrowsky, M. K., & Messner, S. F. (2005). Explaining crime for a young adult population: An application of general strain theory. Journal of Criminal Justice, 33, 463-467. doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2005.06.004
[23] Payne, A. A., & Salotti, S. (2007). A comperative analysis of social learning and social control theories in the prediction of college crime. Deviant Behavior, 28, 553-573. doi:10.1080/01639620701357933
[24] Piquero, N. L., Gover, A. R., MazDonald, J. M., & Piquero, A. (2005). The influence of delinquent pers on delinquency: Does gender matter? Youth and Society, 36, 251-275. doi:10.1177/0044118X04265652
[25] Rebellon, C. J. (2006). Do adolescents engage in delinquency to attract the social attention of pers? An extension and longitudinal test of the social reinforcement hypotesis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43, 387-411. doi:10.1177/0022427806291259
[26] Shavitt, Y., & Rattner A. (1988). Age, crime and early life course. American Journal of Sociology, 53, 81-93.
[27] Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Wei, E. H., Homish, D. L., & Loeber, R. (2002). Which family and demographic factors are related to both maltreatment and persistent serious juvenile delinquency? Children’s Services: Social Policy, Research and Practice, 5, 261-272. doi:10.1207/S15326918CS0504_3
[28] Sullivan, C. J. (2006). Early adolescent delinquency: Assessing the role of childhood problems, family environment and peer pressure. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 4, 291-313. doi:10.1177/1541204006292656
[29] Sutherland, E., & Cressey, D. (1966). The principles of criminology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Comp.
[30] Thornberry, T., Lizotte, A., Krohn, M., Farnworth, M., & Jang, S. (1994). Delinquent peers, beliefs, and delinquent behavior: A longitudinal test of interactional theory. Criminology, 32, 47-83. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.1994.tb01146.x
[31] Warr, M., & Stafford, M. (1991). The influence of delinquent peers: What they think or what they do? Criminology, 29, 851-865. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.1991.tb01090.x
[32] Weerman F. M., & Smeenk, H. W. (2005). Peer similarity in delinquency for different types of friends: A comparison using two measurement method. Criminology, 43, 499-524. doi:10.1111/j.0011-1348.2005.00015.x
[33] Wright, J., & Cullen, F. (2001). Parental efficacy and delinquent behavior: Do control and support matter? Criminology, 39, 677-705. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2001.tb00937.x

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.