Vaccine by Chicken Line Interaction Alters the Protective Efficacy against Challenge with a Very Virulent plus Strain of Marek’s Disease Virus in White Leghorn Chickens

Abstract

Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic and highly contagious α-herpesvirus. MD has been controlled by vaccination but sporadic outbreaks of MD still occur in some parts of the world. Efforts to improve vaccine efficacy have continued in both research communities and vaccine industries. We reported the host genetic variation affecting Marek’s disease vaccine-induced immunity in chickens earlier. In this study, we evaluated chicken lines, vaccines, and line by vaccine interaction on the protective efficacy of vaccination against MD. Specific pathogen free chickens from the relatively resistant line 63 and the highly susceptible line 72 were primarily used to evaluate the protection by three kinds of vaccines (rMd5ΔMeq, CVI988/Rispens, and HVT) upon challenge with a very virulent plus strain of MDV, vv+648A. Our data confirmed that both the chicken line and the vaccine significantly affected the protective efficacy of vaccination and showed that a chicken line by vaccine interaction, in most of the trials, also altered vaccine protective efficacy. More interestingly, although the protective index of all vaccine strains was higher in resistant than in susceptible line of chickens, the difference for HVT protection was striking and warrants further study. The findings may have important implications for vaccine development as well as for selective use of particular vaccines in specific lines of chickens to achieve maximum protection at minimized costs.

Share and Cite:

S. Chang, J. Dunn, M. Heidari, L. Lee, C. Ernst, J. Song and H. Zhang, "Vaccine by Chicken Line Interaction Alters the Protective Efficacy against Challenge with a Very Virulent plus Strain of Marek’s Disease Virus in White Leghorn Chickens," World Journal of Vaccines, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-11. doi: 10.4236/wjv.2012.21001.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] B. W. Calnek, “Pathogenesis of Marek’s Disease Virus Infection,” Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, Vol. 255, 2001, pp. 25-55. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-56863-3_2
[2] B. W. Calnek, “Marek’s Disease Vaccines,” Developments in Biological Standardization, Vol. 52, 1982, pp. 401-405.
[3] R. L. Witter, “New Serotype 2 and Attenuated Serotype 1 Marek’s Disease Vaccine Viruses: Comparative Efficacy,” Avian Diseases, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1987, pp. 752-765. doi:10.2307/1591027
[4] A. F. Islam, S. W. Walkden-Brown, P. J. Groves and G. J. Underwood, “Effects of Vaccine Dose, Virus Challenge Dose and Interval from Vaccination to Challenge on Protection of Broiler Chickens against Marek’s Disease Virus Challenge,” Australian Veterinary Journal, Vol. 85, No. 9, 2007, pp. 348-355. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.2007.00195.x
[5] J. D. Blaxland, A. J. Macleod and T. Hall, “Trials with Marek’s Disease Vaccines Prepared from a Turkey Herpes Virus and an Attenuated Marek’s Disease Virus,” Veterinary Record, Vol. 97, No. 3, 1975, pp. 50-52. doi:10.1136/vr.97.3.50
[6] H. G. Purchase and W. Okazaki, “Effect of Vaccination with Herpesvirus of Turkeys (HVT) on Horizontal Spread of Marek’s Disease Herpesvirus,” Avian Diseases, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1971, pp. 391-397. doi.org/10.2307/1588710
[7] L. N. Payne and K. Venugopal, “Neoplastic Diseases: Marek’s Disease, Avian Leukosis and Reticuloendotheliosis,” Scientific and Technical Review, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2000, pp. 544-564.
[8] B. H. Rispens, H. van Vloten, N. Mastenbroek, H. J. Maas and K. A. Schat, “Control of Marek’s Disease in the Netherlands. I. Isolation of an Avirulent Marek’s Disease Virus (Strain CVI 988) and Its Use in Laboratory Vaccination Trials,” Avian Diseases, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1972, pp. 108-125. doi:10.2307/1588905
[9] K. A. Schat and B. W. Calnek, “Characterization of an Apparently Nononcogenic Marek’s Disease Virus,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 60, No. 5, 1978, pp. 1075-1082.
[10] R. L. Witter and B. R. Burmester, “Differential Effect of Maternal Antibodies on Efficacy of Cellular and Cell-Free Marek’s Disease Vaccines,” Avian Pathology, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1979, pp. 145-156. doi:10.1080/03079457908418337
[11] L. F. Lee, H. Zhang, M. Heidari, B. Lupiani and S. M. Reddy, “Evaluation of Factors Affecting Vaccine Efficacy of Recombinant Marek’s Disease Virus Lacking the Meq Oncogene in Chickens,” Avian Diseases, Vol. 55, No. 2, 2011, pp. 172-179. doi:10.1637/9575-101510-Reg.1
[12] J. S. Gavora and J. L. Spencer, “Studies on Genetic Resistance of Chickens to Marek’s Disease—A Review,” Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Vol. 2, No. 2-3, 1979, pp. 359-371. doi:10.1016/0147-9571(79)90022-5
[13] L. D. Bacon and R. L. Witter, “Influence of B-Haplotype on the Relative Efficacy of Marek’s Disease Vaccines of Different Serotypes,” Avian Diseases, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1993, pp. 53-59. doi:10.2307/1591457
[14] L. D. Bacon and R. L. Witter, “B Haplotype Influence on the Relative Efficacy of Marek’s Disease Vaccines in Commercial Chickens,” Poultry Science, Vol. 73, No. 4, 1994, pp. 481-487. doi:10.3382/ps.0730481
[15] L. D. Bacon and R. L. Witter, “Serotype Specificity of B-Haplotype Influence on the Relative Efficacy of Marek’s Disease Vaccines,” Avian Diseases, Vol. 38, No. 1, 1994, pp. 65-71. doi:10.2307/1591838
[16] L. D. Bacon and R. L. Witter, “Efficacy of Marek’s Disease Vaccines in MHC Heterozygous Chickens: MHC Congenic x Inbred line F1 Matings,” Journal of Heredity, Vol. 86, No. 4, 1995, pp. 269-273.
[17] S. Chang, J. R. Dunn, M. Heidari, L. F. Lee, J. Song, C. W. Ernst, Z. Ding, L. D. Bacon and H. M. Zhang, “Genetics and Vaccine Efficacy: Host Genetic Variation Affecting Marek’s Disease Vaccine Efficacy in White Leghorn Chickens,” Poultry Science, Vol. 89, No. 10, 2010, pp. 2083-2091. doi:10.3382/ps.2010-00740
[18] W. M. Muir, G. K. Wong, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, M. A. M. Groenen, R. P. M. A. Crooijmans, H.-J. Megens, H. M. Zhang, J. C. McKay, S. McLeod, R. Okimoto, J. E. Fulton, P. Settar, N. P. O'sullivan, A. Vereijken, A. Jungerius-Rattink, G. A. A. Albers, C. Taylor Lawley, M. E. Delany and H. H. Cheng, “Review of the Initial Validation and Characterization of a 3K Chicken SNP Array,” World’s Poultry Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 2, 2008, pp. 219-225. doi:10.1017/S0043933908000019
[19] L. D. Bacon, H. D. Hunt and H. H. Cheng, “A Review of the Development of Chicken Lines to Resolve Genes Determining Resistance to Diseases,” Poultry Science, Vol. 79, No. 8, 2000, pp. 1082-1093.
[20] H. M. Zhang, H. D. Hunt, G. B. Kulkarni, D. E. Palmquist and L. D. Bacon, “Lymphoid Organ Size Varies among Inbred Lines 6(3) and 7(2) and Their Thirteen Recombinant Congenic Strains of Chickens with the Same Major Histocompatibility Complex,” Poultry Science, Vol. 85, No. 5, 2006, pp. 844-853.
[21] N. Yonash, L. D. Bacon and E. J. Smith, “Concentration of Immnoglobulin G in Plasma Varies among 6C.7 Recombinant Congenic Strains of Chickens,” Poultry Science, Vol. 81, No. 8, 2002, pp. 1104-1108.
[22] L. D. Bacon, H. D. Hunt and H. H. Cheng, “A Review of the Development of Chicken Lines to Resolve Genes Determining Resistance to Diseases,” Poultry Science, Vol. 79, No. 8, 2000, pp. 1082-1093.
[23] L. D. Bacon, H. D. Hunt and H. H. Cheng, “Genetic Resistance to Marek’s Disease,” Current Topics in Microbi- ology and Immunology, Vol. 255, 2001, pp. 121-141. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-56863-3_5
[24] R. L. Witter, “Increased Virulence of Marek’s Disease Virus Field Isolates,” Avian Diseases, Vol. 41, No. 1, 1997, pp. 149-163. doi.org/10.2307/1592455
[25] R. L. Witter, B. W. Calnek, C. Buscaglia, I. M. Gimeno and K. A. Schat, “Classification of Marek’s Disease Viruses According to Pathotype: Philosophy and Methodology,” Avian Pathology, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2005, pp. 75-90. doi:10.1080/03079450500059255
[26] S. M. Reddy, B. Lupiani, I. M. Gimeno, R. F. Silva, L. F. Lee and R. L. Witter, “Rescue of a Pathogenic Marek’s Disease Virus with Overlapping Cosmid DNAs: Use of a pp38 Mutant to Validate the Technology for the Study of Gene Function,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, Vol. 99, No. 10, 2002, pp. 7054-7059. doi:10.1073/pnas.092152699
[27] R. L. Witter, L. D. Bacon, H. D. Hunt and H. H. Cheng, “Genetics and Vaccines for the Future Control of Marek’s Disease,” 1994, pp. 90-96. http://www.poultryscience.org/pba/1952-2003/1994/1994%20Witter.pdf
[28] R. L. Witter, “Marek’s Disease Vaccines—Past, Present and Future (Chicken vs. Virus—A Battle of the Centuries),” In: K. A. Schat, R. W. Morgan, M. M. S. Parcells, and J. L. Spencer, Eds., Current Progress on Marek’s Disease Research, American Association of Avian Pathologists, Kennett Square, 2001, pp. 1-9.
[29] I. M. Gimeno, R. L. Witter, H. D. Hunt, L. F. Lee, S. M. Reddy and U. Neumann, “Marek’s Disease Virus Infection in the Brain: Virus Replication, Cellular Infiltration, and Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigen Expression,” Veterinary Pathology, Vol. 38, No. 5, 2001, pp. 491-503. doi:10.1354/vp.38-5-491
[30] J. L. Liu, Y. Ye, Z. Qian, Y. Qian, D. J. Templeton, L. F. Lee and H. J. Kung, “Functional Interactions between Herpesvirus Oncoprotein MEQ and Cell Cycle Regulator CDK2,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 73, No. 5, 1999, pp. 4208-4219.
[31] SAS Institute Inc., “Logistic Regression for Niminal and Ordinal Response,” Statistics and Graphics Guide, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, 2008, pp. 431-454.
[32] S. Geng, and F. J. Hills, “Biometrics in Agriculture Science,” Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, 1989.
[33] G. de Buy, “Cofactors That May Influence Vaccine Responses,” Current Opinion in HIV & AIDS, Vol. 5, No. 5, 2010, pp. 404-408. doi:10.1097/COH.0b013e32833d1fca
[34] S. Chang, Z. Ding, J. R. Dunn, L. F. Lee, M. Heidari, J. Song, C. W. Ernst and H. M. Zhang, “A Comparative Evaluation of the Protective Efficacy of rMd5dMeq and CVI988/Rispens against a vv+Strain of Marek’s Disease Virus Infection in a Series of Recombinant Congenic Strains of White Leghorn Chickens,” Avian Diseases, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2011, pp. 384-390. doi:10.1637/9524-091310-Reg.1
[35] G. F. de Boer, J. E. Groenendal, H. M. Boerrigter, G. L. Kok and J. M. Pol, “Protective Efficacy of Marek’s Disease Virus (MDV) CVI-988 CEF65 Clone C against Challenge Infection with Three Very Virulent MDV Strains,” Avian Diseases, Vol. 30, No. 2, 1986, pp. 276-283. doi:10.2307/1590529
[36] L. F. Lee, B. Lupiani, R. F. Silva, H. J. Kung and S. M. Reddy, “Recombinant Marek’s Disease Virus (MDV) Lacking the Meq Oncogene Confers Protection against Challenge with a Very Virulent plus Strain of MDV,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 15, 2008, pp. 1887-1892. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.01.046
[37] Z. Cui, G. Zhuang, X. Xu, A. Sun and S. Su, “Molecular and Biological Characterization of a Marek’s Disease Virus Field Strain with Reticuloendotheliosis Virus LTR Insert,” Virus Genes, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2010, pp. 236-243. doi:10.1007/s11262-009-0437-z

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.