Share This Article:

Friendship Motivation, Aggression, and Self-Esteem in Japanese Undergraduate Students

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:118KB) PP. 7-11
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31002    6,226 Downloads   11,505 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among self-determined friendship motivation (motivation for friendship formation), aggression, and self-esteem in a sample of 262 Japanese university students. The hypothetical model posited that self-determined friendship motivation predicted lower levels of aggression, which, in turn, predicted lower levels of self-esteem. The results showed that self-determined friendship motivation predicted lower levels of anger, hostility, and physical aggression and that hostility and anger predicted lower levels of self-esteem. Verbal aggression was found to be positively associated with self-determined friendship motivation and self-esteem. The different relationships between self-determined friendship motivation and each facet of aggression are discussed.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Okada, R. (2012). Friendship Motivation, Aggression, and Self-Esteem in Japanese Undergraduate Students. Psychology, 3, 7-11. doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.31002.


[1] Ando, A., Soga, S., Yamasaki, K., Shimai, S., Shimada, H., Utsuki, N., Oashi, O., & Sakai, A. (1999). Development of the Japanese version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ). Japanese Journal of Psychology, 70, 384-392. doi:10.4992/jjpsy.70.384
[2] Barefoot, J. C., Dahlstrom, W. G., & Williams, R. B. Jr. (1983). Hostility, CHD incidence, and total mortality: A 25-year follow-up study of 255 physicians. Psychosomatic Medicine, 45, 59-63.
[3] Baumeister, R. F., Smart, L., & Boden, J. M. (1996). Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggression: The dark side of high self-esteem. Psychological Review, 103, 5-33. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.103.1.5
[4] Boiché, J. C. S., & Sarrazin, P. G. (2007). Self-determination of contextual motivation, inter-context dynamics and adolescents’ patterns of sport participation over time. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 685-703. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.10.004
[5] Buhrmester, D., Furman, W., Wittenberg, M. T., & Reis, H. T. (1988). Five domains of interpersonal competence in peer relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 991-1008. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.55.6.991
[6] Buss, A. H., & Perry, M. (1992). The aggression questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452-459. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.63.3.452
[7] Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
[8] Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01
[9] Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Gagné, M., Leone, D. R., Usunov, J., & Kornazheva, B. P. (2001). Need satisfaction, motivation, and well-being in the work organizations of a former Eastern Bloc country: A cross- cultural study of self-determination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 930-942. doi:10.1177/0146167201278002
[10] Elliot, A. J., Gable, S. L., & Mapes, R. R. (2006). Approach and avoidance motivation in the social domain. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 378-391. doi:10.1177/0146167205282153
[11] Felston, G. & Hill, V. (1999). Aggression Questionnaire hostility scale predicts anger in response to mistreatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 87-97. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00104-1
[12] Gerevich, J., Bácskai, E., & Czobor, P. (2007). The generalizability of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 16, 124-136. doi:10.1002/mpr.221
[13] Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). Autonomy in children’s learning: An experimental and individual difference investigation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 890-898. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.52.5.890
[14] Harmon-Jones, E. (2003). Anger and the behavioral approach system. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 995-1005. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00313-6
[15] Harris, J. A. (1997). A further evaluation of the aggression questionnaire: Issues of validity and reliability. Behaviour Research Therapy, 35, 1047-1053. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(97)00064-8
[16] Hartup, W. W., & Stevens, N. (1997). Friendships and adaptation in the life course. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 355-370. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.121.3.355
[17] Hawley, P. H., Little, T. D., & Pasupathi, M. (2002). Winning friends and influencing peers: Strategies of peer influence in late childhood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 466-474. doi:10.1080/01650250143000427
[18] Jarvinen, D. W., & Nicholls, J. G. (1996). Adolescents’ social goals, beliefs about the causes of social success, and satisfaction in peer relations. Developmental Psychology, 32, 435-441. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.32.3.435
[19] Knee, C. R., Lonsbary, C., Canevello, A., & Patrick, H. (2005). Self-determination and conflict in romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 997-1009. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.89.6.997
[20] Leary, M. R., & Baumeister, R. F. (2000). The nature and function of self-esteem: Sociometer theory. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 32, pp. 1-62). San Diego, CA: 21.Academic Press.
[21] Leary, M. R., Tambor, E. S., Terdal, S. K., & Downs, D. L. (1995). Self-esteem as an interpersonal monitor: The sociometer hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 518-530. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.68.3.518
[22] Levesque, C., Zuehlke, A. N., Stanek, L. R., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Autonomy and competence in German and American university students: A comparative study based on self-determination theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 68-84. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.96.1.68
[23] Losier, G., & Vallerand, R. J. (1994). The temporal relationship between perceived competence and self-determined motivation. The Journal of Social Psychology, 134, 793-801. doi:10.1080/00224545.1994.9923014
[24] Lucas, R. E., & Dyrenforth, R. S. (2006). Does the existence of social relationships matter for subjective well-being? In K. D. Vohs, & E. J. Finkel (Eds.), Self and relationships: Connecting intrapersonal and interpersonal processes (pp. 254-273). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
[25] Matsushima, R., & Shiomi, K. (2003). Developing a scale of self-efficacy in personal relationships for adolescents. Psychological Reports, 92, 177-184.
[26] Miller, T. Q., Smith, T. W., Turner, C. W., Guijarro, M. L., & Hallet, A. J. (1996). A meta-analytic review of research on hostility and physical health. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 322-348. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.322
[27] O’Connor, D. B., Archer, J., & Wu, F. W. C. (2001). Measuring aggression: Self-reports, partner reports, and responses to provoking scenarios. Aggressive Behavior, 27, 79-101. doi:10.1002/ab.2
[28] Okada, R. (2005). Development of a friendship motivation scale in the framework of the self-determination theory. Japanese Journal of Personality, 14, 101-112. doi:10.2132/personality.14.101
[29] Okada, R. (2006). Effects of autonomous friendship motivation on self-disclosure and adjustment. Japanese Journal of Personality, 15, 52-54. doi:10.2132/personality.15.52
[30] Okada, R. (2007). Motivational analysis of academic help-seeking: Self-determination in adolescents’ friendship. Psychological Reports, 100, 1000-1012. doi:10.2466/pr0.100.3.1000-1012
[31] Patrick, H., Ryan, A. M., & Kaplan, A. (2007). Early adolescents’ perceptions of the classroom social environment, motivational beliefs, and engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 83-98. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.99.1.83
[32] Richard, J. F., & Schneider, B. H. (2005). Assessing friendship motivation during preadolescence and early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 367-385. doi:10.1177/0272431605276930
[33] Ryan, A. M., & Shim, S. S. (2006). Social achievement goals: The nature and consequences of different orientations toward social com- petence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1246-1263. doi:10.1177/0146167206289345
[34] Sénecal, C., Julien, E., & Guay, F. (2003). Role conflict and academic procrastination: A self-determination perspective. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 135-145. doi:10.1002/ejsp.144
[35] Shahar, G., Henrich, C. C., Blatt, S. J., & Ryan, R. (2003). Interpersonal relatedness, self-definition, and their motivational orientation during adolescence: A theoretical and empirical integration. Developmental Psychology, 39, 470-483. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.39.3.470
[36] Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2005). Antecedents and outcomes of self-determination in 3 life domains: The role of parents’ and teachers’ autonomy support. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 589- 604. doi:10.1007/s10964-005-8948-y
[37] Twenge, J. M. (2006). When does social rejection lead to aggression? The influences of situations, narcissism, emotion, and replenishing connections. In K. D. Williams, J. P. Forgas, & W. von Hippel (Eds.), The social outcast: Ostracism, social exclusion, rejection, and bullying (pp. 201-212). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
[38] Yamamoto, M., Matsui, Y., & Yamanari, Y. (1982). The structure of perceived aspects of the self. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 30, 64-68.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.